Report on Galeras (Colombia) — 3 October-9 October 2012
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
3 October-9 October 2012
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2012. Report on Galeras (Colombia). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 3 October-9 October 2012. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
INGEOMINAS reported that during 2-9 October cameras around Galeras recorded daily emissions that drifted NW and often contained ash. Earthquakes were at most M 2.2 and occurred within 15 km of the crater at depths of less than 10 km. An M 2.2 earthquake on 8 October was located at a depth of 8 km, 7 km NE of the crater. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").
Geological Summary. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large open caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid-Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.