Report on Kilauea (United States) — 31 October-6 November 2012
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
31 October-6 November 2012
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2012. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 31 October-6 November 2012. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 31 October-6 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were 1-1.3 km from the coast. The perched lava lake within the NE pit at Pu'u 'O'o Crater remained active, and glow emanated from sources at the S and N edges of the crater floor. Spatter from the N edge was observed. On 1 November geologists observed the perched lava lake and noted that it was a few meters above the Pu'u 'O'o Crater rim. During 2-3 November lava flowed from the spatter cone on the N part of the crater floor, and was accompanied by spattering.
During 4-5 November activity increased within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. A small amount of lava spilled out of the perched lava lake and from the easternmost of the two sources at the S edge of the crater floor; larger, episodic flows from the easternmost source at the S floor edge continued later. Spattering continued from the cone at the N floor edge.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.