Report on Barren Island (India) — 28 December-3 January 2023
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 December-3 January 2023
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2022. Report on Barren Island (India) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 December-3 January 2023. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
12.278°N, 93.858°E; summit elev. 354 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Barren Island were identified in satellite images at 2340 on 30 December and 0050 on 31 December rising to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SW. A large thermal anomaly was also visible. The ash emissions had dissipated by 0940.
Geological Summary. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). It is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises from a depth of about 2250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the west, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. Historical eruptions have changed the morphology of the pyroclastic cone in the center of the caldera, and lava flows that fill much of the caldera floor have reached the sea along the western coast.