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Fonuafo'ou

Photo of this volcano
  • Tonga
  • Composite (Stratovolcano)
  • 1936 CE
  • Country
  • Landform (Volc Type)
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 20.32°S
  • 175.42°W

  • -17 m
    -56 ft

  • 243050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Fonuafo'ou.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Fonuafo'ou.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Fonuafo'ou.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 5 confirmed Holocene eruptive periods.

1936 Jun Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1936 Jun - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1936 Jun    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1933 Apr Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1933 Apr - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1933 Apr    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1927 Oct 4 - 1928 Sep (in or after) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1927 Oct 4 - 1928 Sep (in or after) Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 9 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Cinder Cone
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Blocks
   - - - -    - - - - Scoria
   - - - -    - - - - Pumice
   - - - -    - - - - Earthquakes (undefined) Before.
   - - - -    - - - - Island ephemeral
1927 Oct 4    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1921 Nov ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1921 Nov - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion Uncertain
   - - - -    - - - - Island Uncertain
1921 Nov    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1894 Dec ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1894 Dec - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion Uncertain
   - - - -    - - - - Island Uncertain
1894 Dec    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1885 Oct 12 (?) - 1886 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1885 Oct 12 (?) - 1886 Evidence from Observations: Reported
 On the night of 12 October 1885, following an earthquake the previous day, a flash of light and detonations were reported. Explosive eruptions were observed by the H.M.S. Sandfly the following day that ejected steam and black columns along a fissure reported to be 3 km long. An island reported to be 4-6 km long was seen on 14 October, and explosions produced columns to about 3 km height (Baker, 1885). The eruption continued into 1886. In October 1889 the island was a nearly symmetrical oval, with a conical hill (about 1/3 the estimated size of the island when the eruption ended) truncated by an eroding cliff on one side and volcanic bombs scattered over the slope, along with steaming and a sulfur odor; the other part of the island consisted of a flat area about 3-4 m above high tide level (Lister, 1890). Over the next six years (by 1896) Hoffmeister (1929) reported that the island had been reduced to about 800 m diameter, and three years after that (1898) there was just a shoal about 100 m in diameter.

List of 9 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Eruption cloud
   - - - -    - - - - Ash violent, strong, or large
   - - - -    - - - - Blocks
   - - - -    - - - - Scoria
   - - - -    - - - - Earthquakes (undefined) Before.
   - - - -    - - - - Earthquakes (undefined)
   - - - -    - - - - Island ephemeral
1885 Oct 12
(?)
   - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index) VEI 3

1877 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1877 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported
 "Smoke" was seen issuing from the sea in 1877 by the H.M.S. Sappho (Thomson, 1926).

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1877    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1865 ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Uncertain Episode
1865 - Unknown Evidence from Unknown
 A breaking reef was reported in 1865. No specific mention was made of an eruption. The CAVW treats the event as a submarine eruption, although other compilers do not.

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
1865    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1781 ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Uncertain Episode
1781 - Unknown Evidence from Unknown
 "Culebras Bank" was first reported at this location in 1781 by the vessel Maurelle (CAVW). No specific mention was made of eruptive activity, although the CAVW (p. 14) treats the event as an island-forming eruption. Other compilers such as Thomson (1926) do not list an eruption in this year.

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
1781    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)
Deformation History

There is no Deformation History data available for Fonuafo'ou.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Fonuafo'ou.

GVP Map Holdings

Maps are not currently available due to technical issues.

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Fonuafo'ou in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

External Sites