Logo link to homepage

Suoh

Photo of this volcano
  • Indonesia
  • Sunda Volcanic Arc
  • Cluster | Caldera(s)
  • 2024 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Province
  • Landform | Volc Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 5.25°S
  • 104.27°E

  • 1000 m
    3281 ft

  • 261270
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 22 May-28 May 2024 Citation IconCite this Report

PVMBG reported that a phreatic eruption at Suoh’s Nirwana Crater occurred at 0830 on 24 May and produced a dense white steam plume; two more phreatic explosions occurred within the following half hour. According to BNPB the first event ejected sediment, the second event ejected sediment-laden water, and the third produced a dense black plume. Loud booming was heard within a radius of several kilometers. During a field visit, scientists noted that pebble-sized material had been ejected and temperatures around the vent were higher. The public was warned to stay 500 m away from Nirwana Crater and to avoid Suah’s craters and associated drainages due to potentially elevated levels of carbon dioxide. Very minor hydrothermal explosions took place in 1994; large phreatic explosions last occurred in 1933.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: May 1994 (BGVN 19:05) Citation IconCite this Report

Water chemistry of the boiling, post-eruption hot-springs

A . . . small eruption at Suoh hot-spring field that expelled gas-charged hot mud [followed] a major, destructive earthquake in the same region (19:02). The earthquake, Ms 7.2, took place at 1707 GMT on 15 February, or in terms of local time and date, at 0007 on 16 February.

"We sent our team to investigate the area where the phreatic explosion occurred. The team arrived at Suoh on 19 February, three days after the earthquake. Two new mud explosion pits, 5 m in diameter, were found W of the Suoh depression. Liquifaction was consistently found at fractures associated with the earthquake. The two explosion pits contained boiling water."

Tables 1 and 2 present data on water and gas samples taken from two sites in the Suoh area during the investigation.

Table 1. Water chemical analyses for two sites in the Suoh hot-spring field (sampled 19 February 1994). Courtesy of VSI.

Measured Parameter Hot Spring Crater Lake
Temperature (°C) 97.6 33.0
pH 8.12 3.09
Conductivity (µS/cm) 883 967
 
Na+ ppm 299 199
K+ ppm 20.8 28.4
Li+ ppm 2.21 2.67
Ca+2 ppm 12.1 8.33
Mg+2 ppm 4.7 6.07
Fe+3 ppm 0.00 1.27
Mn+2 ppm 0.00 0.00
As+3 ppm 192 0.005
SiO2 ppm 18.4 207
Boron ppm 604 7.2
Cl- ppm 175 308
SO4 ppm 713 86.5
HCO2-3 ppm 0.50 --
F- ppm 0.40 0.25
NH3 ppm -- 0.01

Table 2. Gas chemical analyses for two sites in the Suoh hot-spring field (sampled 19 February 1994). Courtesy of VSI.

Element Suoh (TB-1), Kawah Api Porwarnas New explosion pit (Kawah Baru)
  Total Gas (mole %) Dry Gas (mole %) Total Gas (mole %) Dry Gas (mole %)
H2 0.003 0.89 0.005 0.25
O2+Ar 0.040 11.9 0.070 3.44
N2 0.180 53.4 0.120 59.4
CO 0.002 0.59 0 0
CO2 0.100 29.7 0.480 23.6
SO2 0.001 0.30 0.250 12.3
H2S 0.004 1.19 0.020 0.98
HCl 0.007 2.08 0.002 0.098
H2O 99.66 -- 97.96 --

Information Contacts: R. Sukhyar, VSI.

Weekly Reports - Index


2024: May


22 May-28 May 2024 Citation IconCite this Report

PVMBG reported that a phreatic eruption at Suoh’s Nirwana Crater occurred at 0830 on 24 May and produced a dense white steam plume; two more phreatic explosions occurred within the following half hour. According to BNPB the first event ejected sediment, the second event ejected sediment-laden water, and the third produced a dense black plume. Loud booming was heard within a radius of several kilometers. During a field visit, scientists noted that pebble-sized material had been ejected and temperatures around the vent were higher. The public was warned to stay 500 m away from Nirwana Crater and to avoid Suah’s craters and associated drainages due to potentially elevated levels of carbon dioxide. Very minor hydrothermal explosions took place in 1994; large phreatic explosions last occurred in 1933.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


Bulletin Reports - Index

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

02/1994 (BGVN 19:02) A major earthquake apparently triggers a phreatic eruption 2 weeks later

05/1994 (BGVN 19:05) Water chemistry of the boiling, post-eruption hot-springs




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


February 1994 (BGVN 19:02) Citation IconCite this Report

A major earthquake apparently triggers a phreatic eruption 2 weeks later

. . . an eruption occurred in the Suoh hot-spring field two weeks after a major earthquake in the region [but see 19:4]. If confirmed, it will be the second time in this century that Suoh erupted two weeks after a large earthquake. As of late February, Indonesian scientists had found two new 5-m-diameter craters that were erupting hot gas-charged mud to 10 m height. The public was not allowed within 100 m of the craters.

The earthquake took place on 15 February, a few tens of kilometers SE of Suoh (5.4°S, 104.8°E) and had a shallow focal depth. The earthquake's magnitude was reported as 7.2 by the NEIC, but press reports stated that officials in Jakarta determined it to be M 6.5. The earthquake apparently caused extensive damage and at least 215 deaths . . . .

This latest seismically triggered outburst was less vigorous than the one in 1933 . . . .

Information Contacts: G. Melosh, Unocal Geothermal Division; NEIC; AP.


May 1994 (BGVN 19:05) Citation IconCite this Report

Water chemistry of the boiling, post-eruption hot-springs

A . . . small eruption at Suoh hot-spring field that expelled gas-charged hot mud [followed] a major, destructive earthquake in the same region (19:02). The earthquake, Ms 7.2, took place at 1707 GMT on 15 February, or in terms of local time and date, at 0007 on 16 February.

"We sent our team to investigate the area where the phreatic explosion occurred. The team arrived at Suoh on 19 February, three days after the earthquake. Two new mud explosion pits, 5 m in diameter, were found W of the Suoh depression. Liquifaction was consistently found at fractures associated with the earthquake. The two explosion pits contained boiling water."

Tables 1 and 2 present data on water and gas samples taken from two sites in the Suoh area during the investigation.

Table 1. Water chemical analyses for two sites in the Suoh hot-spring field (sampled 19 February 1994). Courtesy of VSI.

Measured Parameter Hot Spring Crater Lake
Temperature (°C) 97.6 33.0
pH 8.12 3.09
Conductivity (µS/cm) 883 967
 
Na+ ppm 299 199
K+ ppm 20.8 28.4
Li+ ppm 2.21 2.67
Ca+2 ppm 12.1 8.33
Mg+2 ppm 4.7 6.07
Fe+3 ppm 0.00 1.27
Mn+2 ppm 0.00 0.00
As+3 ppm 192 0.005
SiO2 ppm 18.4 207
Boron ppm 604 7.2
Cl- ppm 175 308
SO4 ppm 713 86.5
HCO2-3 ppm 0.50 --
F- ppm 0.40 0.25
NH3 ppm -- 0.01

Table 2. Gas chemical analyses for two sites in the Suoh hot-spring field (sampled 19 February 1994). Courtesy of VSI.

Element Suoh (TB-1), Kawah Api Porwarnas New explosion pit (Kawah Baru)
  Total Gas (mole %) Dry Gas (mole %) Total Gas (mole %) Dry Gas (mole %)
H2 0.003 0.89 0.005 0.25
O2+Ar 0.040 11.9 0.070 3.44
N2 0.180 53.4 0.120 59.4
CO 0.002 0.59 0 0
CO2 0.100 29.7 0.480 23.6
SO2 0.001 0.30 0.250 12.3
H2S 0.004 1.19 0.020 0.98
HCl 0.007 2.08 0.002 0.098
H2O 99.66 -- 97.96 --

Information Contacts: R. Sukhyar, VSI.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 2 confirmed Holocene eruptive periods.

2024 May 24 - 2024 May 24 Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2024 May 24 - 2024 May 24 Evidence from Observations: Reported

1933 Jul 10 - 1933 Aug 5 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Pematang Bata
1933 Jul 10 - 1933 Aug 5 Evidence from Observations: Reported
 Following a major tectonic earthquake on 25 June 1933, strong phreatic eruptions beginning on 10 July ejected great quantities of mud. Pyroclastic surges occurred, activity was observed over a 1.5 x 5 km area, and the explosions were audible 660 km away. Two large explosion craters were formed (CAVW; Newhall and Dzurisin, 1988).

List of 5 Events for Episode 1 at Pematang Bata

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Cinder Cone
   - - - -    - - - - Earthquakes (undefined) Before.
1933 Jul 10    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)
Deformation History

There is no Deformation History data available for Suoh.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Suoh.

GVP Map Holdings

Maps are not currently available due to technical issues.

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Suoh in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

External Sites