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Hakusan

Photo of this volcano
  • Japan
  • Nankai Volcanic Arc
  • Composite | Stratovolcano
  • 1659 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Province
  • Landform | Volc Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 36.155°N
  • 136.771°E

  • 2702 m
    8865 ft

  • 283050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports available for Hakusan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Hakusan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Hakusan.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 20 confirmed Holocene eruptive periods.

1659 Apr 21 - 1659 Aug 8 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2 (?)

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Midoriga-ike
1659 Apr 21 - 1659 Aug 8 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 5 Events for Episode 1 at Midoriga-ike

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Audible Sounds
1659 Apr 21    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1658 Oct (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2 (?)

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1658 Oct (?) - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1658 Oct
(?)
   - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1640 Aug 2 (?) ] Discredited Eruption

1582 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1582 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1582    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1579 Sep 27 ± 1 days Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Jigoku-no-oana
1579 Sep 27 ± 1 days - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 5 Events for Episode 1 at Jigoku-no-oana

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Lahar or Mudflow
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1579 Sep 27 ± 1 days    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1554 May - 1556 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode SW of Midoriga-ike
1554 May - 1556 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 6 Events for Episode 1 at SW of Midoriga-ike

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow weak or small
   - - - -    - - - - Fauna Kill Aquatic.
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1554 May    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1548 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3 (?)

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1548 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion Uncertain
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
1548    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1547 Mar 4 - 1547 Oct (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1547 Mar 4 - 1547 Oct (?) Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 5 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1547 Mar 4    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1239 (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1239 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 5 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Lava dome
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
1239
(?)
   - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1177 May 18 ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1177 May 18 - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion Uncertain
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
1177 May 18    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1042 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3 (?)

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Midoriga-ike
1042 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 6 Events for Episode 1 at Midoriga-ike

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Blocks
   - - - -    - - - - Crater Summit.
   - - - -    - - - - Lahar or Mudflow
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1042    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 0900 (?) ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0900 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion Uncertain

[ 0884 ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0884 - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

[ 0859 ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0859 - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion Uncertain

[ 0853 ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Hm-14 tephra?
0853 - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 2 Events for Episode 1 at Hm-14 tephra?

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity Uncertain
   - - - -    - - - - Ash

0706 Sep (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0706 Sep (?) - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli

0500 ± 100 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Hm-13 tephra
0500 ± 100 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 2 Events for Episode 1 at Hm-13 tephra

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash

0200 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Hm-11,12 tephras
0200 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1 at Hm-11,12 tephras

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash

0200 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Kengamine, Hm-10 tephra
0200 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 7 Events for Episode 1 at Kengamine, Hm-10 tephra

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Lava dome
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli
0200 BCE
(?)
   - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

2550 BCE ± 150 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Hm-9 tephra
2550 BCE ± 150 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at Hm-9 tephra

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash

3550 BCE ± 500 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Hm-8 tephra
3550 BCE ± 500 years - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 4 Events for Episode 1 at Hm-8 tephra

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli

3900 BCE ± 200 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Hm-7 tephra
3900 BCE ± 200 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at Hm-7 tephra

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash

5000 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Hm-5 tephra
5000 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at Hm-5 tephra

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash

6550 BCE ± 50 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Hm-4 tephra
6550 BCE ± 50 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at Hm-4 tephra

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash

7050 BCE ± 500 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Hm-3 tephra
7050 BCE ± 500 years - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at Hm-3 tephra

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash

7550 BCE ± 50 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Hm-1 tephra
7550 BCE ± 50 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 2 Events for Episode 1 at Hm-1 tephra

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
Deformation History

There is no Deformation History data available for Hakusan.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Hakusan.

Photo Gallery

Eruptions at Hakusan occur at multiple vents along a roughly N-S line; the volcano is viewed here from the W. Holocene eruptions have consisted of phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions at several summit craters. Historical eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.

Photo by Ishikawa Prefecture, 1983 (courtesy Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
Hakusan is seen here from the W with the snow-covered peaks of Norikura and Ontakesan on the left and right horizons, respectively. It was constructed on a high basement of sedimentary rocks in a region of very heavy snowfall that has contributed to erosion. Eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.

Photo by Ishikawa Prefecture (courtesy Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
Kengamine (left) and Gozengamine (right) peaks are seen from Onanjimine, another of the summit peaks of Hakusan volcano. The Kengamine lava dome and the Shiramizutaki lava flow extending from its base originated during an explosive eruption about 2,300 years ago. A pond fills the Midorgaike crater in the left foreground, which formed during an explosive eruption in 1042 CE.

Photo by Toshio Higashino (Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
Midorigaike, seen here from the SW, is one of several craters along the summit complex of Hakusan. A documented eruption in 1042 CE formed Midorigaike pond and buried a wooden hut near the summit. Descriptions suggest that the eruption consisted of phreatic explosions that ejected older volcanic rocks around the vent.

Photo by Toshio Higashino (Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
This outcrop along the Oshirakawa river east of Hakusan volcano in Japan shows textures that are common at debris avalanche deposits. Large fractured clasts are carried in a finer matrix that shows variations in color. This results from the transport of small discrete segments of the volcano for long distances without being completely broken up and mixed together. This debris avalanche was produced by a volcanic landslide from the summit and E flank of Hakusan about 4,200 years ago.

Photo by S. Shimuzu (courtesy of Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
Hakusan, seen here from the WNW, contains multiple vents along a roughly N-S line. Holocene eruptions have consisted of phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions from several summit craters. Partial collapse of the summit produced a debris avalanche down the E flank. Eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.

Photo by Ishikawa Prefecture, 1994 (courtesy Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
GVP Map Holdings

Maps are not currently available due to technical issues.

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Hakusan in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

External Sites