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Haleakala

Photo of this volcano
  • United States
  • Hawaii and Pacific Ocean
  • Shield
  • 1750 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 20.708°N
  • 156.25°W

  • 3055 m
    10023 ft

  • 332060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Haleakala.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Haleakala.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Haleakala.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 40 Holocene eruptive periods.

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1750 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Anthropology SW rift zone (180-360 m), Kalua o Lapa flow
1460 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Kawaipapa lava flow
1420 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone
1360 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1600 m), Makua flow
1350 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1500 m), Keonehunehune flow
1200 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1200 m)
1080 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) North crater wall (Hanakauhi flow)
1020 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone, Mauka flow
1010 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater (Halali'i)
0990 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Puu Hina'i, Ka'eleku flows
0980 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater (Puu o ka O'o)
0910 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater, Kalua Awa flow
0790 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater (Puu Nole)
0080 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater
0290 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~2400 m)
0390 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) North crater wall
0580 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater
1140 BCE ± 30 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone, Auwahi flow
1240 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Upper SW rift zone (~2800 m)
1310 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Upper SW rift zone (~2600 m)
1800 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater
1850 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1600 m)
1900 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Wai'ele'ele flow
1940 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone
2120 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater (Puu Maile)
2210 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone
2260 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone (East Camp cone)
2470 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~2000 m)
2580 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3070 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone
4760 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
5860 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone
6030 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Lo'alo'a flow
6220 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone, Kanahau flow
6700 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone, Waiohuli flow
6760 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone (W of Kanahau)
7210 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Upper SW rift zone
7450 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone
7570 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Kuhiwa flow
7950 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1800 m)
Deformation History

There is no Deformation History data available for Haleakala.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Haleakala.

Photo Gallery

The broad Haleakalā shield volcano towers over the eastern part of the island of Maui, seen here from the beach at Kihei on the west flank. Its summit profile is irregular because of the many scoria cones that have erupted along the SW rift zone, which extends from the coast to the summit. The lava flow in the foreground also originated from Haleakalā.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The east rift zone of Haleakalā extends to the eastern tip of Maui, north of this beach at Hamoa. Frequent eruptions have taken place along the east rift zone during the Holocene. The Waihoi Valley forms the notch to the upper left is one of several large erosional valleys down the flanks.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Halali'i (center foreground) and Pu’u o Maui (left center) are two of a series of young scoria cones erupted within the Haleakalā crater. Unvegetated lava flows form much of the crater floor, seen here looking NW from Pu’u Naue scoria cone. The crater is one of the few locations where the rare native-Hawaiian silversword ('ahinahina) plant is found.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Kamoa O Pele (left) and Pu’u o Maui (right) are two of a group of young scoria cones along the southwest rift zone within the Haleakalā crater, seen here looking westward towards the Haleakalā summit.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Pu’u o Maui is the largest of a group of scoria cones erupted along a rift zone that passes across Haleakalā crater, with the western crater rim to the upper left. The large summit crater formed through erosion and collapse events.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Recent activity at Haleakalā took place from vents low on the SW rift zone. The lava flows that form the coastline below originated from two vents, one near where this photo was taken and the other below the scoria cone near the center. Kaho’olawe is in the distance to the SW.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Pu’u Olai is a scoria cone on the west flank of Haleakalā that formed during the late-stage Hana Series eruptions, which produced a large number of scoria cones and lava flows along the SW and E rift zones.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The summit of Haleakalā on the island of Maui contains a large crater that opens towards the ENE. It formed by the erosion of two large valleys that eventually coalesced, along with collapse events. This view to the NE from near the summit shows the Ko’olau Gap in the distance and scoria cones on the crater floor from eruptions along a major rift zone that extends across the summit from the SW to eastern coasts.

Copyrighted photo by Dick Stoiber, 1976 (Dartmouth College).
See title for photo information.
GVP Map Holdings

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included. The maps database originated over 30 years ago, but was only recently updated and connected to our main database. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email.


Title: Hawaii
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1988
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:750,000
Map of Hawaii

Title: Seismicity of Hawaii
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1988
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:750,000
Map of Seismicity of Hawaii

Title: Map Showing Distribution, Composition, and Age of Late Cenozoic Volcanic Craters in Hawaii
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1988
Series: Misc Investigations
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Map Showing Distribution, Composition, and Age of Late Cenozoic Volcanic Craters in Hawaii

Title: HI-Map of Dist, Comp & Age of Late CZ Volc Centers
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1988
Series: MI
Map Type: Geology (Volcano)
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of HI-Map of Dist, Comp & Age of Late CZ Volc Centers

Title: Seismicity of Hawaii, 1962-1985
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1988
Series: OFR
Map Type: Geophysical (Seismic)
Scale: 1:750,000
Map of Seismicity of Hawaii, 1962-1985

Title: Hawaiian Islands
Publisher: DMA Aerospace Center
Country: United States
Year: 1986
Series: ONC
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Hawaiian Islands

Title: Hawaii to French Frigate Shoals
Publisher: US Department of Commerce, NOAA National Ocean Service
Country: United States
Year: 1983
Map Type: Bathymetric
Scale: 1:1,650,000
Map of Hawaii to French Frigate Shoals

Title: Geothermal Resources of Hawaii
Publisher: HI Institute of Geophysics, Univ. HI
Country: United States
Year: 1983
Map Type: Unknown
Scale: 1:500,000
Map of Geothermal Resources of Hawaii

Title: Close-Up USA Hawaii
Publisher: National Geographic Society
Country: United States
Year: 1976
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:675,000
Map of Close-Up USA Hawaii

Title: Hawaii
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1975
Series: W532
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Hawaii

Title: Island of Hawaii
Publisher: Dept of Commerce, ESSA, Coast & Geodetic Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1967
Map Type: Bathymetric
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Island of Hawaii

Title: Hawaii North
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: United States
Year: 1961
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Hawaii North

Title: Anaehoomalu
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1959
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:24,000
Map of Anaehoomalu

Title: Puako
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1943
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:62,500
Map of Puako

Title: Kohala
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1913
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:62,500
Map of Kohala
Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 60 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections, and may be availble for research (contact the Rock and Ore Collections Manager). Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description Lava Source Collection Date
NMNH 109409-8 Ankaramite -- --
NMNH 110777 Ankaramite -- --
NMNH 111123-1859 Trachytic Andesite -- --
NMNH 111123-1860 Trachytic Andesite WHITE HILL CONE --
NMNH 111123-1866 Picritic Basalt SUMMIT --
NMNH 111123-1869 Trachyte PUU MAHANALUA NUI DOME --
NMNH 114756-1 Unidentified -- --
NMNH 116254-10 Andesine Basalt -- --
NMNH 116254-11 Labradorite-Nepheline Basalt -- --
NMNH 116254-14 Limburgitic Basalt PIMOA --
NMNH 116254-15 Augite -- --
NMNH 116254-7 Nepheline-Andesine Basalt -- --
NMNH 116254-8 Andesine Andesite -- --
NMNH 116254-9 Labradorite-Nepheline Basalt -- --
NMNH 117254-122 Picrite Basalt -- --
NMNH 117254-158 Oligoclase Andesite -- --
NMNH 117997-1 Plagioclase Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-10 Plagioclase Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-11 Olivine Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-12 Plagioclase-Olivine Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-13 Plagioclase-Olivine Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-14 Plagioclase Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-15 Plagioclase Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-16 Plagioclase Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-17 Plagioclase Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-18 Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-19 Olivine Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-2 Plagioclase Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-20 Picrite Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-21 Plagioclase Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-3 Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-4 Picrite Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-5 Picrite Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-6 Olivine Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-7 Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-8 Basalt -- --
NMNH 117997-9 Picrite Basalt -- --
NMNH 117998-1 Plagioclase Basalt -- --
NMNH 117998-2 Plagioclase Basalt -- --
NMNH 117999-1 Olivine-Augite Basalt -- --
NMNH 117999-2 Olivine Basalt -- --
NMNH 117999-3 Picrite Basalt -- --
NMNH 135242-00 Augite -- --
NMNH 70566 Lava -- --
NMNH 70569 Basalt -- --
NMNH 70575 Lava -- --
NMNH 88127-79 Essexitic Andesite -- --
NMNH 88127-80 Essexitic Andesite -- --
NMNH 88127-81 Picritic Basalt -- --
NMNH 88127-82 Essexitic Andesite -- --
NMNH 88127-83 Essexitic Andesite -- --
NMNH 92588-110 Volcanic Rock -- --
NMNH 92588-122 Volcanic Rock -- --
NMNH 92588-123 Volcanic Rock -- --
NMNH 92588-124 Volcanic Rock -- --
NMNH 92588-125 Volcanic Rock -- --
NMNH 92588-126 Volcanic Rock -- --
NMNH 92588-127 Volcanic Rock -- --
NMNH 92588-129 Volcanic Rock -- --
NMNH 92588-130 Volcanic Rock -- --
External Sites