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Report on Home Reef (Tonga) — 28 September-4 October 2022

Home Reef

Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 September-4 October 2022
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2022. Report on Home Reef (Tonga) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 September-4 October 2022. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.

Weekly Report (28 September-4 October 2022)

Home Reef


18.992°S, 174.775°W; summit elev. -10 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

The Tonga Geological Services reported that the new island at Home Reef that emerged from the ocean on 10 September continued to grow through 4 October. Daily counts of eruptive events producing gas-and-steam plumes were variable, though during the middle of the week they had decreased to less than 10 events per day. By 1040 on 28 September the dimensions of the new island were estimated to be 268 m N-S and 283 m E-W, and the highest point on the island was about 15 m a.s.l. The island was surrounded by plumes of discolored water within about 200 m from the shore. The plumes were elongated to the S, and were denser with suspended material within 1 km and more diffuse at distances greater or equal to 2 km. Mariners were advised to stay 4 km away from the volcano.

Geological Summary. Home Reef, a submarine volcano midway between Metis Shoal and Late Island in the central Tonga islands, was first reported active in the mid-19th century, when an ephemeral island formed. An eruption in 1984 produced a 12-km-high eruption plume, large amounts of floating pumice, and an ephemeral 500 x 1,500 m island, with cliffs 30-50 m high that enclosed a water-filled crater. In 2006 an island-forming eruption produced widespread dacitic pumice rafts that drifted as far as Australia. Another island was built during a September-October 2022 eruption.

Source: Tonga Geological Services, Government of Tonga