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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 28 September-4 October 2022
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Alaid Kuril Islands (Russia) 2022 Sep 10 New
Home Reef Tonga Ridge New
Nishinoshima Izu Islands New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Trident Alaska New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Karthala Grand Comore Island Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2021 Sep 29 Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island Continuing
Marapi Central Sumatra Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevados de Chillan Central Chile Continuing
Pavlof Alaska Peninsula, Alaska Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days Continuing
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Taal Luzon (Philippines) Continuing
Ta'u American Samoa (SW Pacific) Continuing
Villarrica Central Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
Whakaari/White Island North Island (New Zealand) Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 18,587 individual reports over 1,151 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 329 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Lewotolok Pinatubo St. Helens
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Aira Cumbal Inielika Llaima Poas Sulu Range
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sumbing
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lonquimay Purace Sundoro
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Machin Rabaul Suwanosejima
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Makushin Raikoke Taal
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Maly Semyachik Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Anatahan Ebeko Kadovar Manam Raoul Island Takawangha
Aniakchak Ebulobo Kaitoku Seamount Manda Hararo Rasshua Talang
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Edgecumbe Kama'ehuakanaloa Marapi Raung Tambora
Antuco Egon Kambalny Maroa Redoubt Tanaga
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Martin Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Masaya Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Mauna Loa Rinjani Tara, Batu
Asosan Etna Karthala Mayon Ritter Island Ta'u
Atka Volcanic Complex Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky McDonald Islands Rotorua Taupo
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruang Telica
Avachinsky Fagradalsfjall Katla Merapi Ruapehu Tenerife
Awu Fernandina Katmai Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Axial Seamount Fogo Kavachi Misti, El Sabancaya Three Sisters
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelimutu Miyakejima Sakar Tinakula
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelud Momotombo Salak Tofua
Bagana Fourpeaked Kerinci Monowai San Cristobal Tokachidake
Balbi Fuego Ketoi Montagu Island San Miguel Tolbachik
Bamus Fujisan Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Toliman
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangay Tongariro
Bardarbunga Galeras Kie Besi Myojinsho Sangeang Api Trident
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Nabro Santa Ana Tungurahua
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Turrialba
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bogoslof Gareloi Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Brava Gaua Kizimen Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Bristol Island Gorely Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Saunders Ulawun
Bulusan Great Sitkin Kolokol Group Novarupta Savo Unnamed
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semeru Unnamed
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nyamulagira Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Sheveluch Vulcano
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Shishaldin West Mata
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Okmok Simbo Westdahl
Chaiten Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chiginagak Hekla Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Sinarka Witori
Chikurachki Helgrindur La Palma Osorno Siple Wolf
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamington Pacaya Sirung Yakedake
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Lamongan Pagan Slamet Yasur
Chirinkotan Home Reef Langila Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirpoi Hood Lanin Paluweh Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Ciremai Huaynaputina Lascar Panarea Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Late Papandayan Sotara Zhupanovsky
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lateiki Parker Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Concepcion Ibu Leroboleng Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Copahue Ijen Lewotobi Peuet Sague Spurr
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Alaid
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Alaid was identified in satellite images during 22-30 September. Ash plumes were visible drifting 140 km NE and SE during 26-27 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Home Reef
The Tonga Geological Services reported that the new island at Home Reef that emerged from the ocean on 10 September continued to grow through 4 October. Daily counts of eruptive events producing gas-and-steam plumes were variable, though during the middle of the week they had decreased to less than 10 events per day. By 1040 on 28 September the dimensions of the new island were estimated to be 268 m N-S and 283 m E-W, and the highest point on the island was about 15 m a.s.l. The island was surrounded by plumes of discolored water within about 200 m from the shore. The plumes were elongated to the S, and were denser with suspended material within 1 km and more diffuse at distances greater or equal to 2 km. Mariners were advised to stay 4 km away from the volcano.
Source: Tonga Geological Services, Government of Tonga
Report for Nishinoshima
According to JMA and the Tokyo VAAC an eruption at Nishinoshima produced ash plumes that rose to 1.8-2.6 km (6,000-8,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and W during 1-4 October.
Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Piton de la Fournaise
OVPF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise that began on 19 September was ongoing at a cone adjacent to the SW flank of Piton Kala Pélé during 28 September-4 October. The cone ejected lava to low heights above the rim. Lava flowed from the base of the cone in two main branches, to the SE and E, mainly through lava tubes, as far as 3 km. By 28 September the cone had grown to just over 8 m tall and around 27 m wide at its base. Average daily lava flow discharge rate estimates had a mean value of 8 meters per second at the beginning of the eruption but then stabilized at 2-4 meters per second; the flow rate increased during 28-29 September to more than 6 meters per second. Lava discharge rates were likely underestimated due to measurements hindered by weather conditions or flows obscured by tubes. Tremor levels and gas emissions also began increasing on 29 September and remained at high levels during the rest of the week. The vent at the top of the cone widened and a new, smaller cone formed on the S flank and produced lava flows. The volume of erupted lava was 2.6-5.4 million cubic meters by 30 September; peak discharge rates reached 20 meters per second at times.

Sulfur dioxide emission estimates derived from satellite data had increased from about 610 tons per day on 28 September to 1,525 tons per day on 1 October. A well-defined gas plume, denser than those seen during previous days, was identified in a 30 September satellite image drifting 300 km NW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. A more significant sulfur dioxide plume was identified in satellite data the next day, drifting as far as 400 km. Gas plumes drifted SW during 2-3 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions continued to increase and were about 2,500 tons per day on 3 October. The cone had grown to around 12 m tall and 43 m wide at the base.

During 3-4 October the ejection of lava above the cone became less intense, and the new smaller cone was only weakly active. The southernmost lava flow had reached 1,800 m elevation in an area 1.5 km NW of Nez coupé du Tremblet. During 4-5 October tremor levels fluctuated. Lava effusion increased, averaging 10 meters per second with peaks at 25 meters per second. Lava was ejected above the main vent, which was 23 m wide; the smaller vent was not active. The eruption stopped or paused at 0748 on 5 October based on visual observations and a sudden halt in tremor signals.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)
Report for Trident
AVO raised the Aviation Color Code for Trident to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) on 29 September due to an ongoing seismic swarm. The swarm began on 24 August and within about four days the seismic network began detecting episodes of weak seismic tremor and low frequency earthquakes. The events were initially located at depths around 25 km, but then they progressively shallowed to around 5 km by 28 August. Earthquakes were located 3-6 km deep since then, though some deeper events were recorded. AVO attributed the swarm to moving magma or magmatic fluids and noted that seismic swarms had previously been recorded with no subsequent eruptions.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that 11 eruptive events and five explosions at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 26 September-3 October. Volcanic plumes rose as high as 2.8 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 1.7 km from the vent. Incandescence at the crater was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions generated ash plumes that rose to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E during 22-24 and 27-28 September. On 22 and 28 September the ash plumes that drifted E and N produced ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images on 23 and 28 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that continuing slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin was confirmed by a 27 September satellite image and likely continued during 28 September-4 October. Elevated surface temperatures were identified during 28-29 September; weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views during the rest of the week. Seismicity remained at low levels. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Karthala
According to the Direction Générale de la Sécurité Civile (DGSC) – Comores on 4 October, the Observatoire Volcanologique du Karthala (OVK) reported that activity at Karthala had significantly declined during the previous few days. OVK recommended that the Alert Level remain at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-level scale).
Source: Direction Générale de la Sécurité Civile – Comores
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 27 September-4 October, entering the lava lake. The active part of the lake stayed at a relatively steady level through the week, varying only slightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions were approximately 970 and 1,800 tonnes per day on 28 and 30 September, respectively. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 27 September-4 October. White emissions rose as high as 350 m above the summit and drifted E, SE, W, and NW on most days. White-and-gray plumes rose as high 500 m and drifted NW, W, and E during 29-30 September and 1-2 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater and 4 km away from the crater on the SE flank.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that seismicity at Marapi increased on 29 September, with 146 deep volcanic earthquakes recorded by the seismic network. Surficial activity showed no changes. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 23-29 September and seismicity remained at high levels. As many as seven lava avalanches from the SW lava dome traveled down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank, reaching a maximum distance of 1.8 km. No morphological changes to the central lava domes were evident in photographs, while the SW dome grew about 1 m taller. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevados de Chillan
SERNAGEOMIN reported that two long-period earthquake signals were recorded at Nevados de Chillán at 0813 on 3 October and 1630 on 4 October, and both were followed by a dense ash emission. The ash plume from the first event rose 760 m above the summit and drifted SSW, while the ash plume from the second event rose as high as 1.9 km and also drifted SSW. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, and reminded residents not to approach the crater within 2 km.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)
Report for Pavlof
AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 27 September-4 October. Seismic tremor continued, and a few small earthquakes were recorded during 28-29 September. Weather clouds often prevented views of the volcano, though elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on a few of the days. Diffuse steam plumes were visible in webcam views during 30 September-2 October. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sabancaya
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported moderate levels of activity at Sabancaya during 5-11 September with a daily average of 46 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE. As many as nine thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected near Hualca Hualca (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 27 September-4 October. Eruptive events at 0459 and 0726 on 2 October produced ash plumes that rose 500-700 m above the summit and drifted S and SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit, and 500 m from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Semisopochnoi
On 29 September AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code for Semisopochnoi to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) noting that no ash emissions or explosive activity had been detected since 14 September. Seismicity had decreased, though remained at elevated levels. Steam emissions from the active vent in the N crater of Mount Cerberus persisted. Seismic tremor and a small explosion were detected in seismic and infrasound data during 3-4 October.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch was characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, and lava-dome extrusion during 15-22 September. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Plumes of re-suspended ash drifted 113 km E on 23 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that during 26 September-2 October activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosions from three vents in Area N (North Crater area) and at least two vents in Area C-S (South-Central Crater area). Low-intensity explosions from the N1 vent (Area N) ejected course material (bombs and lapilli) 80-150 m high at a rate of 3-5 explosions per hour. Spattering was visible at the N2 vent (Area N). Explosions from at least two vents in Area C-S, which were not visible due to the camera views, ejected ash and course material less than 150 m above the vent at a rate of 1-5 events per hour.

At 1524 on 29 September an explosion at N2 generated an ash plume that rose 300 m above the summit and ejected abundant amounts of lava fragments, lapilli, and bombs along the Sciara del Fuoco. Four subsequent, low-intensity explosions ejected tephra 100 m high. Spattering activity at the vent intensified afterwards and through the next day. Beginning at 1115 on 3 October a lava flow emerged from Area N and traveled down the Sciara del Fuoco, reaching the ocean.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 30 September-3 October. A total of 38 explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and occasionally ejected large bombs from the vent. Crater incandescence was visible nightly and ash sometimes fell in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater. [Correction: JMA noted that the number of explosions had been increasing since 26 September; they raised the Alert Level to 3 on 28 September.]
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Taal
In a special advisory, PHIVOLCS reported that sulfur dioxide emissions at Taal were as high as 10,718 tonnes per day on 29 September, creating a significant amount of vog over the caldera. Voggy conditions were reported by residents of Laurel, Agoncillo, and Santa Teresita, Batangas. The report noted that sulfur dioxide emissions had been increasing since 15 July and averaged 6,612 tonnes per day in September. In early August degassing at the volcano increased characterized by the upwelling of hot fluids in the lake and steam-rich plumes rising as high as 2.5 km above the lake’s surface. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5), and PHIVOLCS warned the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island was a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Ta'u
HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level for Ta’u to Normal (the lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) on 3 October, noting that seismic activity had dramatically decreased and maintained low levels over the past few weeks. Analysis of data from one seismometer that had recorded earthquakes during 2005-2009 suggested that a rate of five detected earthquakes per day was characteristic of long-term background seismicity; the current earthquakes rates were at background levels.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Villarrica
On 3 October SERNAGEOMIN reported that recent passive emissions from Villarrica contained tephra that was deposited on the upper SW flank. Evidence suggested that there were recent fluctuations in the intensity of activity at the lava lake in the main crater. The Alert Level remained at Green, the lowest level on a four-color scale.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)
Report for Whakaari/White Island
GeoNet reported that the minor ash and sulfur dioxide emissions from the active vent area in Whakaari/White Island’s crater only occurred on 18 September based on subsequent webcam and satellite images. The most likely cause for the emission was a gas release from small amount of magma moving into the shallow part of the volcano, though there was no evidence of increasing activity at the volcano. On 30 September the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5).
Source: GeoNet