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Global Volcanism Program | Image GVP-01028

Submarine eruptions within Krakatau caldera were first observed in December 1927 and an ephemeral island appeared the following month. This 1929 view shows an ash-rich cock’s tail jet typical of shallow submarine explosions. Material ejected by earlier eruptions forms an island visible to the left. By August 1930 Anak Krakatau became a permanent island. Photo by C.E. Stehn, 1929 (courtesy Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

Submarine eruptions within Krakatau caldera were first observed in December 1927 and an ephemeral island appeared the following month. This 1929 view shows an ash-rich cock’s tail jet typical of shallow submarine explosions. Material ejected by earlier eruptions forms an island visible to the left. By August 1930 Anak Krakatau became a permanent island.

Photo by C.E. Stehn, 1929 (courtesy Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

Keywords: surtseyan | ash plume | ash | explosive eruption | phreatomagmatic | lava water interaction | magma water interaction | subaqueous eruption | cock's-tail plume


Krakatau