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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 23 October-29 October 2002.


















 Activity for the week of 23 October-29 October 2002

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Gorely Southern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New
San Miguel El Salvador New

Colima Mexico Ongoing
Guagua Pichincha Ecuador Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Mauna Loa Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Veniaminof United States Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

A relatively large eruption began at Etna on 27 October, following a series of ~200 small earthquakes the previous evening. The eruption began with fissures opening on the volcano's S and NE slopes around 2,700 m elevation, between Southeast Crater and Montagnola cone. Lava fountains rose 100-200 m, lava flows were emitted from the fissures, and significant ash plumes were produced. On the 28th seismicity continued, with a M 3.8 earthquake occurring beneath the volcano. Lava flows cut across the road connecting the towns of Linguaglossa and Piano Provenzana and lava ignited several forest fires near Piano Provenzana. The lava flows were estimated to be 365 m wide and 6.1 m high.

Ditches were dug in an effort to control lava flows, but by the 29th they were completely covered by lava. Authorities also tried to control the flows by having planes douse the lava with water, causing the flows to cool and stagnate, but they continued to travel down the volcano's flanks. Authorities stressed that the popular ski town of Linguaglossa (6,000 residents), located ~15 km NE of Etna's summit, was not in danger of being engulfed by lava flows. As a precautionary measure ~50 residents were evacuated and schools were closed. By the 28th lava flows had destroyed several hotels, restaurants, a ski school, ski lift pylons, and power lines on the volcano's flanks. Ash fell in towns at the base of the volcano. Some streets in the town of Nicolosi, ~15 km S of the summit, were covered with a 5-cm-thick layer of ash.

During 27 to at least 29 October ash clouds were visible on satellite imagery and the Etna volcano video camera, reaching a maximum height of ~6.4 km a.s.l. The clouds drifted towards the SE and on the 27th one had reached ~350 km S to Libya. From the beginning of the eruption, Catania's Fontanarossa airport was closed. Ash emissions continued on the 29th and a M 4.4 earthquake occurred around 1100, damaging hundreds of buildings in the town of Santa Venerina on the volcano's SE flank.

Sources: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Associated Press, Reuters



Volcano index photo  Gorely  | Southern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 52.559°N, 158.03°E  | Elevation 1799 m

According to a Pravda news article, the Laboratory of Active Volcanism at the Institute of Volcanology reported that a seismic station located atop Gorely registered continuous tremor that was four times stronger than background tremor. In addition, "smoke" and steam rose 300 m above the volcano. Another report from the Kamchatkan Experimental-Methodical Seismological Department, which operates the seismic station, stated that the station is in the vicinity of both Gorely and Mutnovsky, therefore it is difficult to attribute the tremor to a specific volcano. They found that during 2-3 October a swarm of about 30 M 1.2-1.7 earthquakes was recorded, and on 26 October there were two M 1.7 earthquakes.

Sources: Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department, Pravda News



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

An eruption on 20 October from Tavurvur volcano took place at Rabaul caldera. The head of RVO stated that rocks were thrown 700 m from the summit and no lava was erupted. Ash from the eruption caused Tokua airport flights to be suspended on 22 October. It reopened on the 27th, with two flights permitted during the day. Reopening the airport was possible because ash from the eruption shifted away from it. Several small explosions occurred after the 20 October eruption and sent ash clouds to 4 km a.s.l. On the 28th RVO stated that a major increase in volcanic activity seemed unlikely.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Reuters, Pacific Island Report



Volcano index photo  San Miguel  | El Salvador  | 13.434°N, 88.269°W  | Elevation 2130 m

A news report stating that a rockslide released dangerous fumes at San Miguel on 17 October was found to be false.

Source: Associated Press



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Colima's web video camera showed an ash-and-steam plume rising to a height of ~5.5 km a.s.l. on 24 October at 0430. The plume drifted toward the N. Neither ash nor steam was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: US Air Force Weather Agency



Volcano index photo  Guagua Pichincha  | Ecuador  | 0.171°S, 78.598°W  | Elevation 4784 m

A small increase in the number of phreatic explosions occurred at Guagua Pichincha following the 11 October explosion. The activity increase may have occurred due to heavy rain at the volcano.

Source: El Universo



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

Seismicity remained above background levels at Karymsky during 18-25 October, with ~250 shallow earthquakes occurring per day. The character of the seismicity indicated that ash-and-gas explosions reached heights of 1 km above the volcano and vigorous 5- to 10-minute-long gas emissions possibly occurred. KVERT reported that a lava flow was probably traveling down the volcano's slopes. Thermal anomalies were visible on satellite imagery on several days, but ash was not. Karymsky remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 23-29 October at Kilauea, lava continued to enter the sea from two deltas as it has for several weeks. Surface lava flows were not visible on the coastal flat or Paliuli, and were occasionally seen near Pulama pali. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels beneath Kilauea's caldera. A swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath the caldera occasionally occurred. A small deflation event began on the 28th that was recorded at Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o tiltmeters.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Mauna Loa  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.475°N, 155.608°W  | Elevation 4170 m

As of 28 October Mauna Loa continued to inflate, but seismicity remained at low levels. The permanent, continuous GPS network indicated ongoing lengthening across Moku`aweoweo summit caldera, as it has since late April or May 2002.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

During 18-25 October seismicity remained above background levels at Shiveluch, but the number of earthquakes decreased. During this interval, seismic data indicated that there had been hot avalanches and 10 ash-and-gas explosions in which clouds reached 1 km above the lava dome. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~4.5 km a.s.l. and thermal anomalies were visible on satellite imagery. Shiveluch remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

Volcanic and seismic activity at Soufrière Hills remained at a similar level during 18-25 October to that of the previous week. Occasional clear views of the lava dome revealed that the active extrusion lobe in the NW continued to grow steadily, increasing in height and bulging out on the N and W sides. The most notable event of the week occurred on the afternoon of 22 October when intense rainfall at midday produced large mudflows NW in the Belham Valley where residents had recently been evacuated. At the peak of flow, the entire width of the valley floor at Belham Bridge was flooded and standing waves up to 2.5 m high were observed. By 1430, pyroclastic-flow activity began. For several hours, pyroclastic flows were generated off of the N flank of the dome and were channeled northeastwards into the upper parts of Tuitt's Ghaut, from where they crossed over into White's Bottom Ghaut. Flows also occurred on the dome's E flank in the Tar River Valley. SO2 emission rates were low at the beginning of the report period and increased towards the end of the week.

Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Associated Press



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During 22-29 October, emissions of steam, gas, and ash continued at Tungurahua. Plumes rose to a maximum height of ~8 km a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Veniaminof  | United States  | 56.17°N, 159.38°W  | Elevation 2507 m

Veniaminof remained restless during 18-25 October. Although the current seismic activity is lower than when first noted in early September, it is still above background level. No new visual observations of Veniaminof were received since the last update. No thermal anomalies were observed in satellite views. AVO considered the activity at Veniaminof to be minor, but the exact nature of the unrest was unknown. Veniaminof remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Bamus Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Monowai Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Ibu Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Iliamna Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Iya Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kadovar Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkuban Parahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Egon Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt West Mata
Epi Kverkfjoll Reventador White Island
Erebus Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etna Langila Ritter Island Yasur
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Rotorua Zaozan
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fernandina Lateiki Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fonualei Leroboleng Sabancaya
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotobi Sakar
Fourpeaked Lewotolo Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)