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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 27 November-3 December 2002.


















 Activity for the week of 27 November-3 December 2002

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Italy New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Kanlaon Philippines New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New

Awu Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Witori New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia  | Italy  | 37.1°N, 12.7°E  | Elevation -8 m

According to news articles, Enzo Boschi, the head of INGV, stated that seismicity increased near Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia a group of submarine volcanoes ~30 km S of Sicily, near Tunisia. Boschi stated, "The island could come back to the surface, but we'll have to wait and see... It could be a few weeks or months." The Stromboli On-Line website noted that similar statements have been made several times in the past couple of years. The increased seismicity does not necessarily signify that an eruption is imminent and the island will re-emerge above wave base.

Sources: Reuters, Stromboli On-Line



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

Etna continued to erupt through 2 December. According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, during the afternoon on 1 December ash fell in Catania and surrounding areas, leading to the closure of Fontanarossa Airport. On the 2nd, explosive activity continued at two vents on Etna's upper S flank and lava was emitted from a third vent at the SW base of the large pyroclastic cone that formed during the first 5 weeks of activity. In addition, the most advanced part of the most recently active lava flow that burned part of a forest on the SW flank seemed to have stopped. According to the Toulouse VAAC, since the eruption began on 27 October there has been unsteady activity at the volcano with periods of stronger activity leading to temporary ash emission.

Sources: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Italy's Volcanoes, Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kanlaon  | Philippines  | 10.412°N, 123.132°E  | Elevation 2435 m

A small ash puff was released from Canlaon on 28 November at 0721. The puff rose to a height of ~100 m above the active crater and drifted SW. Associated volcanic tremor was recorded at Cabagnaan and Guintubdan stations. Traces of ash fell at Cabagnaan station, SSW of the active crater. Moderate steam emissions were observed immediately after the ash puff and a few discrete tremors were recorded. PHIVOLCS advised the public to remain outside of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.

Sources: ABS-CBN News, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Piton de la Fournaise  | Reunion Island (France)  | 21.244°S, 55.708°E  | Elevation 2632 m

The eruption that began at Piton de la Fournaise on 16 November continued during 29 November to 3 December. On 29 November eruptive tremor increased by a factor of two, with 89 events recorded that day. On the 30th, 329 seismic events were recorded that were all located about 1 km a.s.l. beneath Dolomieu crater. A lava flow in the Grand Brûlé area approached the national road, crossing it around 2300. By about 0500 on 1 December the lava flow had reached the sea. At this time almost constant seismicity occurred at Piton de la Fournaise, with more than 1,500 earthquakes up to M 2.8 recorded. Eruption tremor was stable. Numerous long-period earthquakes were also recorded, indicating the presence of magma beneath the summit. On the morning of 2 December seismicity increased by about a factor of about three, and decreased the next day.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Awu  | Sangihe Islands (Indonesia)  | 3.689°N, 125.447°E  | Elevation 1318 m

Seismicity increased at Awu on 15 November, but during 19-24 November decreased back to "normal levels." There were no surface changes around the volcano's summit. Awu remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

Volcanic activity at Karangetang during 19-24 November consisted of low-level ash plumes rising above South and North craters. In addition, there was a significant increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes in comparison to the previous week. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 26 November-2 December at Kilauea, lava continued to flow into the ocean at low-to-moderate levels at the West Highcastle and Wilipe`a entries. West Highcastle was the more active of the two lava deltas, with sporadic explosions coming from one of its entry points. Several surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels. A swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath Kilauea's caldera, occasionally active since June, continued to show short bursts of tremor interspersed with numerous small earthquakes. During the report week, small inflation and deflation events occurred at Pu`u `O`o and Uwekahuna tilt meters.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

Seismicity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 21-24 November, and at background levels during 25-27 November. Each day during the report week 7 to 11 earthquakes occurred at a depth of ~30 km. Gas-and-steam plumes were observed rising to ~2 km above the crater and drifting N and NW. On 24 November weak ashfall was observed around Bylinkina's crater on the volcano's NE slope. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

The eruption at Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued through 3 December. The intensity of ash emission changed on 30 November from very slow to slightly forceful, and the interval between eruptions increased. Occasional moderate eruptions produced ash clouds that reached heights of 1-1.5 km above the crater. Two moderate explosions on the night of the 30th emitted visible incandescent lava fragments that showered the volcano's N and NE slopes and ash plumes that rose several hundred meters above the crater. On the evening of 3 December ash plumes were blown N and NW, causing fine ashfall in parts of Rabaul Town. During the report period, seismicity was at low-to-moderate levels. GPS measurements of ground deformation showed no significant changes, but electronic tiltmeters showed minor inflation. RVO stated that the current eruption at Tavurvur is expected to continue, but an increase in eruptive activity is unlikely.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

During 26 November- 1 December, Reventador mainly emitted gas and steam and occasionally small amounts of ash, and seismicity was low. IG stressed to the public that the sulfuric odor in the city of Quito was not indicative of renewed volcanism. During a flight over the volcano on 27 November, IG scientists determined that reports of a second lava flow made the previous week were false; rather, a pyroclastic flow had descended the volcano's NE flank. They also confirmed that a lava flow on the volcano's E flank had been emitted from a small crater that opened ~600 m below the volcano's summit. They believe it began to flow on 24 November and was accompanied by the emission of ash and incandescent rocks. On 2 December incandescence was visible on the E flank of the cone, which was thought to be from a new pulse of lava emitted from the 24 November flow the night of 1 December. On 2 December mudflows traveled down the Montana River, causing problems at a highway.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

During 22-29 November, KVERT decreased the Concern Color Code at Shiveluch from Orange to Yellow. Seismicity remained above background levels during the report interval and seismic data indicated that there had been hot avalanches and eight ash-and-gas explosions in which clouds reached 1-2 km above the lava dome (the previous week there were 19 ash-and-gas explosions to 2-3 km above the lava dome). Weak intermittent spasmodic tremor was registered during 24-25 November. Gas-and-steam plumes were seen rising 100-800 m above the lava dome and thermal anomalies were visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

Volcanic and seismic activity at Soufrière Hills remained at moderate levels during 22-29 November. Growth of the active extruded lobe on the N side of the lava dome continued to produce rockfalls and small-to-moderate pyroclastic flows. Pyroclastic-flow activity was confined mainly to Tuitt's and White's Bottom ghauts, and also along the N edge of the Tar River Valley. On 29 November the active lobe had a broad whaleback-shaped upper surface, which was oriented towards the NNE. SO2 emission rates were generally high.

Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During 27 November to 1 December, emissions of steam, gas, and ash continued at Tungurahua. Plumes rose to ~1 km above the volcano.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Witori  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.576°S, 150.516°E  | Elevation 724 m

RVO reported that Pago continued to erupt through 2 December. Slow lava effusion from the northwestern-most vent continued, with the lava flow still contained within the Witori Caldera floor. Variable amounts of white vapor continued to be released from the vents. The northwestern-most vent released bluish vapor, indicating and/or confirming continuing lava effusion. Seismicity, consisting of small volcanotectonic earthquakes, remained at normal background levels. RVO stated that results from data analysis did not indicate a major increase in eruptive activity.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) via the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center



Weekly Reports Archive

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Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
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Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
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Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
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Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
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Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
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Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
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Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
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Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
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Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)