Logo link to homepage

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail.

This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives on various volcanoes are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 28 November-4 December 2018
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Akan Hokkaido (Japan) New
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) New
Veniaminof United States New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) 2000 Feb 28 (in or before) Continuing
Chiles-Cerro Negro Colombia-Ecuador Continuing
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina border Continuing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Kadovar Papua New Guinea 2018 Jan 5 Continuing
Kirishimayama Kyushu (Japan) Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia 2018 Jun 18 Continuing
Kuchinoerabujima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2020 Jan 11 Continuing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica 2020 Jan 30 Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Turrialba Costa Rica 2020 Jun 18 Continuing
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 16,153 individual reports over 1,038 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 307 different volcanoes.

Search by Date



Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.

Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.          



Search by Volcano



Agung Concepcion Ibu Lewotolo Parker Soufriere Hills
Ahyi Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Aira Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague South Sarigan Seamount
Akan Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo Spurr
Alaid Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa St. Helens
Alu-Dalafilla Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Stromboli
Ambae Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sulu Range
Ambang Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sumbing
Ambrym Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Sundoro
Anatahan Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suretamatai
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Suwanosejima
Antuco Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Taal
Apoyeque Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Tair, Jebel at
Arenal Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Takawangha
Asamayama Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Talang
Askja Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tambora
Asosan Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tanaga
Augustine Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tandikat-Singgalang
Avachinsky Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkoko-Duasudara
Awu Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tangkuban Parahu
Axial Seamount Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Tara, Batu
Azul, Cerro Fogo Katmai Merapi Ruang Telica
Azumayama Fonualei Kavachi Midagahara Ruapehu Tenerife
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kelimutu Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Balbi Fourpeaked Kelut Miyakejima Sabancaya Three Sisters
Bamus Fuego Kerinci Momotombo Sakar Tinakula
Banda Api Fujisan Ketoi Monowai Salak Tofua
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Cristobal Tokachidake
Barren Island Galeras Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Tolbachik
Batur Galunggung Kikai Mutnovsky San Vicente Toliman
Bezymianny Gamalama Kilauea Myojinsho Sangay Tongariro
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nabro Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Brava Gaua Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Turrialba
Bristol Island Gorely Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ubinas
Bulusan Great Sitkin Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarigan Ulawun
Calbuco Grimsvotn Korovin Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Unnamed
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Koryaksky Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Cameroon Guallatiri Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Nyamuragira Seulawah Agam West Mata
Cereme Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Nyiragongo Sheveluch Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okataina Shishaldin Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Hekla Kverkfjoll Okmok Simbo Witori
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Ontakesan Sinabung Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Oraefajokull Sinarka Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Osorno Siple Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Pacaya Sirung Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Pagan Slamet Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Paluweh Soputan
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Panarea Sorikmarapi
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Papandayan Sotara
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network RSS Feed

The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network CAP Feed

The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.



Download Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Akan
JMA reported that the number of earthquakes with shallow hypocenters and epicenters near Ponmachineshiri Crater, a summit crater of Me-Akan (also known as Meakan-dake, which means Meakan Peak) of the Akan volcanic complex, increased at 1800 on 20 November. Another seismic increase occurred on 23 November, in number and amplitude of events, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (the second lowest level on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Mayon
PHIVOLCS reported that during 27 November-4 December white steam plumes rose from Mayon daily, and crater incandescence was visible almost nightly. At 0533 on 27 November a phreatic event generated a grayish-white ash plume that rose 300-500 m and drifted SW. A one-minute-long event that began at 0941 on 30 November produced another grayish-white ash plume. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Veniaminof
AVO reported that the eruption of lava from the cone in Veniaminof’s ice-filled summit caldera continued during 27 November-3 December. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures. Steam and diffuse ash plumes were periodically identified in webcam and satellite images. During 27-28 November acoustic waves were recorded by regional infrasound sensors. Continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded until the network went offline following a M 7 tectonic earthquake near Anchorage on 30 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that nine events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 26 November-3 December, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim. Incandescence was periodically visible at night. An explosion at 0218 on 1 December generated a plume that rose 2.5 km and ejected tephra 1.1 km from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Bagana
On 1 December the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Bagana were visible in satellite images drifting SE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The report also noted the presence of a strong thermal anomaly, and that ash plumes which previously rose to 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. had dissipated. Steam plumes drifted SE on 2 December.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Chiles-Cerro Negro
Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) reported that a seismic swarm below Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes began at 0100 on 3 December. The events were classified as volcano-tectonic, with epicenters located up to 6 km from the summit of Chiles volcano, at depths of less than 8 km (4.7 km a.s.l.). The maximum local magnitude was 2.3. From the beginning of the swarm until the time of the report posting (1640) there were about 5,400 recorded events, making the swarm the largest since 2015. The report also noted that seismicity had gradually been increasing in recent weeks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (level 2 of 4).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Copahue
The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 2 December a narrow ash plume from Copahue was visible in satellite images drifting ESE.
Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-27 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 23-30 November that sent ash plumes to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite data on 24 November, and ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 27 and 29 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kadovar
Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 November ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. On 2 December ash plumes rose to 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW and W.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Kirishimayama
JMA reported that vigorous fumarolic activity on the S side of Iwo-yama (also called Ioyama), on the NW flank of the Karakuni-dake stratovolcano in the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued during 30 November-3 December. Fumarolic plumes rose 100 m above the vent, and hot mud was ejected from the vent. A hot pool of water persisted on the S side of the area. Fumarolic plumes rose 50 m above a vent 500 m W of Iwo-yama. The Alert Level remained at 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-5).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Krakatau
PVMBG reported that events at Anak Krakatau were recorded at 1131 on 1 December, at 1408 on 2 December, and at 0816 on 3 December, each lasting between 46 and 69 seconds. Ash plumes from the events rose 500-700 m and drifted NE and N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kuchinoerabujima
JMA reported that during 28 November-3 December intermittent events at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater generated plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Merapi
PVMBG reported that during 23-29 November the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater grew at a rate of 2,500 cubic meters per day. By 29 November the volume of the dome, based on photos taken from the SE, was an estimated 329,000 cubic meters. White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 400 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that each day during 28 November-3 December there were 16-79 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl. Periods of volcanic tremor were detected almost daily. Explosions at 0509 and 0922 on 2 December ejected incandescent material onto the upper flanks, and generated ash plumes that rose 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NE. More explosions at 1543 and 1745 produced ash plumes that rose 1.5 km and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
Report for Rincon de la Vieja
OVSICORI-UNA reported a one-minute-long eruption at Rincón de la Vieja began at 1054 on 3 December. Weather conditions prevented webcam views and estimates of plume heights.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Sabancaya
Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 21 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 26 November-2 December. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km N, E, and SE. MIROVA detected eight thermal anomalies, and on 28 November the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 4,600 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.
Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images on 23 November; weather clouds prevented views of the volcano during 24-30 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that four explosions at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater were recorded during 22-30 November. The highest ash plume rose 2 km, and material was ejected 300 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in an area 4 km SSW on 23 November. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Turrialba
OVSICORI-UNA reported intermittent pulses of ash and some periods of continuous ash emissions from Turrialba during 28 November-3 December. Ash plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim and drifted N, NW, and SW. Ashfall was reported in Santo Domingo (36 km WSW) on 2 December.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)