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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 17 January-23 January 2024
Name Country Volcanic Province Eruption Start Date Report Status
Ahyi United States Mariana Volcanic Arc New
Grimsvotn Iceland Iceland Neovolcanic Rift Zone New
Lewotobi Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2023 Dec 23 New
Marapi Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2023 Dec 3 New
Aira Japan Ryukyu Volcanic Arc 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Bulusan Philippines Eastern Philippine Volcanic Arc Continuing
Dukono Indonesia Halmahera Volcanic Arc 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia Kuril Volcanic Arc 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States Aleutian Ridge Volcanic Arc 2021 May 25 Continuing
Ibu Indonesia Halmahera Volcanic Arc 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia Eastern Kamchatka Volcanic Arc 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan Ryukyu Volcanic Arc 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Villarrica Chile Andean Southern Volcanic Arc 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,274 individual reports over 1,227 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Ahyi
Signs of unrest at Ahyi Seamount continued. Plumes of discolored water extending 4-4.5 km from the summit area were identified in satellite images during 21-23 January. No volcanic activity was identified in data from underwater pressure sensors near Wake Island (about 2,270 km E of Ahyi). The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Grimsvotn
IMO lowered the Aviation Color Code for Grímsvötn to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) in a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) issued at 1537 on 22 January. They noted that the jökulhlaup that had begun around 10 January had ended, and that there were no measurable signs of elevated activity.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Lewotobi
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotobi’s Laki-laki volcano was ongoing during 16-23 January. Dense white-and-gray or white, gray, and brown ash plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the summit and drifted NW, N, NE, and E. Lava flows from the summit crater continued down the N flank and were almost 3.8 km long by 23 January, according to a news article. Lava avalanches and pyroclastic flows occasionally descended the N, NW, and SW flanks during the week; lava avalanches traveled at most 2 km down the SW flank on 16 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay outside of the exclusion zone, defined as a 5-km radius around Laki-laki Crater and 6 km from the crater on the N and NE flanks.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News, Antara News, Antara News, Antara News, Antara News
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing during 10-16 January. Plumes were not observed during 17-18 January. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 300-600 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions during 19-22 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 4.5 km away from the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 15-22 January with nighttime crater incandescence. An explosion at 0505 on 18 January produced an ash plume that rose 800 m above the crater rim and merged into weather clouds and ejected material 300-500 m from the crater rim. A small eruptive event occurred at Showa Crater on 21 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Bulusan
PHIVOLCS reported increased seismicity at Bulusan in a special advisory. The seismic network recorded a total of 91 volcanic-tectonic earthquakes, associated with rock fracturing, located at depths of 2-4 km beneath the SW flank from 0138 on 22 January to 0130 on 23 January. Gas emissions characterized as weak-to-moderate rose from the summit crater and active vents. Both the SE and SW flanks have been inflated since February 2023 based on ground deformation data from continuous GPS and electronic tilt monitoring. The Alert Level remained at 1 (the second level on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS reminded the public not to enter the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and to be vigilant within the 2-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 17-23 January. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 100-1,800 m above the summit and drifted S and SE during 18-19 and 22-23 January; emissions were not observed on the other days. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 11-18 January. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions during 12 and 17-18 January generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l and drifted NE and E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that the eruption of lava at Great Sitkin’s summit lava dome continued during 16-23 January, confirmed by a few radar images acquired during the week. Effusion was concentrated at the center of the dome with minimal advancement at the margins of the flow. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 16-18 January. Local webcams and seismic data communications were offline due to a storm-related power failure. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third highest color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that Ibu continued to erupt during 17-23 January. Daily white-and-gray or gray-to-brown ash emissions rose 200-1,300 m above the summit and drifted S, SW, and W. On 17 January banging and rumbling sounds were heard at the observation post and glass in the building shook. Minor amounts of ash fell in local areas to the NW, W, and SW of the volcano during 17-19 January. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (the second highest level on a four-level scale), with the public advised to stay outside of the 2 km hazard zone and 3.5 km away from the N area of the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 17-23 January. White gas-and-steam plumes rose 300 m above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE during 17-20 January; emissions were not visible on the other days. Incandescent material was occasionally ejected above the vent, sometimes as high as 400 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 12-18 January. Seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced a total of 88 lava avalanches that descended the S and SW flanks; five traveled S as far as 1.2 km down the upper part of the Boyong drainage and 83 traveled SW as far as 1.6 km down the upper part of the Bebeng drainage. Four pyroclastic flows descended the Bebeng drainage as far as 2.4 km. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome identified in webcam images were due to continuing collapses of material. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 17-23 January. Dense gray ash plumes rose 700 m above the summit and drifted N and NE at 0016 on 18 January and 300 m above the summit and drifted NE at 0136 on 23 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the third highest level on a scale of 1-4). Eruptive events were recorded at 0922 on 19 January and at 1540 on 22 January, though emissions were not observed. The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the eruption at Sheveluch continued during 11-18 January. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 11-15 and 17 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 16-22 January and crater incandescence was observed nightly. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 at 1100 on 19 January because the probability of material being ejected more than 1 km laterally had decreased. There were seven explosions detected from 1759 on 19 January to 1222 on 22 January. Details about the plumes were reported for two of them and unknown for the remaining ones; on 21 January an explosion at 1632 produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted SE and an explosion at 2215 produced an ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim before merging into weather clouds. The public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Villarrica
POVI reported that Strombolian activity at Villarrica was visible on 22 January in webcam images from a new camera located W of the volcano. Incandescent material was ejected above the crater rim. The Volcanic Alert level remained at Yellow (the third level on a four-level scale) according to SERNAGEOMIN.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI)