Report on Aira (Japan) — January 1993
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 18, no. 1 (January 1993)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Aira (Japan) Continued explosions; no damage
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1993. Report on Aira (Japan) (McClelland, L., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 18:1. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199301-282080
31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Sixteen explosions occurred . . . in January . . . . No damage was caused by the explosions. The highest ash plume rose 2,900 m on 22 January at 1109. Seismicity remained normal, with two swarms of B-type earthquakes on January 23 (duration 6 hours) and 25 (3 hours).
Geological Summary. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
Information Contacts: JMA.