Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — November 1994
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 19, no. 11 (November 1994)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Moderate explosive eruption causes minor ashfall 30 km away
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1994. Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia) (Wunderman, R., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 19:11. Smithsonian Institution.
56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Although clouds obscured the volcano in early November, continuous tremor (maximum amplitude 0.1-0.3 Nm) was recorded, and 4-11 earthquakes/day were detected under the volcano except on 7 November, when 23 events occurred. On 10 November, a gas-and-steam plume seen from Kliuchi (30 km NNE) was directed ESE for ~1 km. An observer in Kliuchi saw a gas-and-steam plume on 12 November rising 1 km above the summit that extended ~10 km ENE. On 18 November, observers in Kozirevsk (50 km W) saw a gas-and-steam column rising 50 m above the summit crater. Seismicity on the 18th consisted of continuous tremor (maximum amplitude 0.24 µm), one weak deep earthquake, and 9 shallow events.
A moderate explosive eruption occurred beginning about 0400 on 23 November, based on interpretations of seismicity. The volcano was completely obscured by clouds, but as much as 0.5 mm of ash fell in Kliuchi. Thirteen strong and shallow earthquakes beneath the volcano between 0400 and 1200 had maximum amplitudes of 14.25 µm at a seismic station 14 km from the volcano, and were recorded at stations up to 70 km away; persistent volcanic tremor had a maximum amplitude of ~0.33 µm. Comparing the seismicity to that of 30 September-1 October, the ash plume may have reached an altitude of ~7 km.
On 24 November, observers in Kliuchi noted a vigorous gas-and-steam plume containing minor ash rising 1 km above the volcano and extending >30 km NE. Weak volcanic tremor (amplitude ~0.15 µm) and 22 shallow earthquakes were registered beneath the crater area. The next day, observers in Kozirevsk reported a gas-and-steam plume above the volcano. Continuous tremor was recorded ~32 km from the volcano, and 12 shallow earthquakes were recorded beneath the crater area. On 28 November, a gas-and-steam plume seen from Kliuchi rose 2 km above summit and extended 3 km SW. A vigorous gas-and-steam plume of unknown height was also seen from Kliuchi on the 30th, continuous tremor (0.4 µm) was recorded 11 km away, and 73 shallow earthquakes were detected as far as 70 km away.
Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.
Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG; AVO.