Report on Poas (Costa Rica) — November 1994
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 19, no. 11 (November 1994)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Poas (Costa Rica) Slow deflation and low-to-moderate seismicity
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1994. Report on Poas (Costa Rica) (Wunderman, R., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 19:11. Smithsonian Institution.
10.2°N, 84.233°W; summit elev. 2708 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Fumarolic activity continued at Poás in the re-established crater lake. OVSICORI reported the lake level remained the same in both October and November. ICE reported that due to heavy rains in November the lake had attained a diameter of ~220 m and its surface reached 8 m above the minimum level seen in August.
The turquoise-green colored lake hosted subaqueous fumarolic activity, leading to bubbling and minor phreatic eruption columns to 100 m height. In the NE part of the lake there existed a spot with sporadic phreatic eruptions. These reached 1-m height and had a dark-gray color. The area adjacent to the crater continues to recuperate from acidic conditions found earlier this year.
Results from the OVSICORI seismic system appear in table 6. The day of the month with the greatest number of seismic events was 7 November. Compared to earlier in 1994, the number of seismic events in November was low to moderate.
Deformation, measured by dry-tilt, failed to show significant changes in November. The four distance-measuring lines inside and across the active crater showed changes of less than 8 ppm in a deflationary direction. The two precision leveling lines at the summit changed less than 6 and 12 µrad. These leveling-line changes were interpreted as tending toward slow deflation after a brief pulse of inflation registered during the eruptive activity of August 1994.
Geologic Background. The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.
Information Contacts: E. Fernández, J. Barquero, R. Van der Laat, F. de Obaldia, T. Marino, V. Barboza, and R. Sáenz, OVSICORI; G. Soto, G. Alvarado, and F. Arias, ICE.