Report on Semeru (Indonesia) — November 1996
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 21, no. 11 (November 1996)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Semeru (Indonesia) A 2-km-long pyroclastic flow on 7 October; minor ashfall
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1996. Report on Semeru (Indonesia) (Wunderman, R., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 21:11. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199611-263300.
8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Ongoing pyroclastic flows associated with lava avalanches tended to be larger in October than September. On 7 October, one such pyroclastic flow ran down the Besuk Kembar river to a distance of ~2 km. At the end of October ash had accumulated to ~1 mm thick in villages around the volcano. Seismicity was dominated by explosions and avalanche earthquakes.
Semeru, the highest peak on Java, has frequent pyroclastic flows, lahars, and lava flows. Since 1967, many Vulcanian eruptions have accompanied lava dome extrusion.
Geologic Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.
Information Contacts: Wimpy S. Tjetjep, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia.