Report on Fonualei (Tonga) — July 1979
Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 4, no. 7 (July 1979)
Managing Editor: David Squires.
Fonualei (Tonga) Steam emissions observed
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1979. Report on Fonualei (Tonga). In: Squires, D. (ed.), Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 4:7. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.SEAN197907-243100.
18.023°S, 174.317°W; summit elev. 188 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Geologists aboard the RV Bulikula inspected the volcanoes along the Tonga Arc between 3 and 21 July. . . . Fonualei . . . was emitting steam when viewed . . . in mid-July.
Geologic Background. The small island of Fonualei (~2 km diameter) contains a fumarolically active crater breached to the SE with a fresh lava flow extending to the sea and forming a rugged shoreline. Steep, inward-facing scarps mark the rim of a partially exposed caldera. Blocky lava flows fill much of the northern caldera moat and reach the sea to the north and east. In contrast to the andesitic and basaltic rocks of other islands of the Tonga arc, Fonualei lavas are of dominantly dacitic composition. Eruptions have been recorded since 1791, with the largest taking place in June 1846, when explosive eruptions produced large pumice rafts, ashfall damaged crops on the island of Vava'u (70 km SSE), and ash was reported by vessels up to 950 km distant. In 1939 explosive and effusive activity occurred from summit and flank vents, and water spouts were reported 1.6 km SE of the island.
Information Contacts: R. Richmond, Mineral Resources Dept., Fiji.