Report on Asosan (Japan) — 18 September-24 September 2019
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 18 September-24 September 2019
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2019. Report on Asosan (Japan). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 18 September-24 September 2019. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
32.884°N, 131.104°E; summit elev. 1592 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
JMA reported that ash emissions continued to be observed at Asosan, rising to 1.6, 1.1, and 0.9 km above the crater rim during 14-17, 18-20, and 21-24 September, respectively. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 3,600 tons per day on 17 September and 2,700 tons per day on 19 September. Ashfall was reported in downwind areas to the SW, including at the Kumamoto Regional Meteorological Observatory. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).
Geologic Background. The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. The summit crater of Nakadake is accessible by toll road and cable car, and is one of Kyushu's most popular tourist destinations.