Report on Tungurahua (Ecuador) — 29 December-4 January 2011
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
29 December-4 January 2011
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2010. Report on Tungurahua (Ecuador). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 December-4 January 2011. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
1.467°S, 78.442°W; summit elev. 5023 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Although storm clouds occasionally prevented observations of the summit area, IG reported that steam plumes were observed almost daily during 29 December-4 January. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally observed at night. On 30 December a steam-and ash plume rose 500 m above the crater and drifted W. On 2 January a small explosion produced an ash plume that also rose 500 m above the crater and drifted W.
Geological Summary. Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II collapsed about 3,000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit to the west. The modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed within the landslide scarp. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater, accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1999 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)