Report on Hierro (Spain) — 30 November-6 December 2011
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 30 November-6 December 2011
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2011. Report on Hierro (Spain) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 30 November-6 December 2011. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
27.73°N, 18.03°W; summit elev. 1500 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 30 November-6 December the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island, with lava balloons sporadically observed floating on the sea. During this period, the mean tremor amplitude was similar to the previous week. Twenty-eight seismic events were located, most of them offshore to the N of the island at depths of 15-24 km and with a maximum magnitude of 2.8. Only one of these events was felt by residents at a maximum intensity value of II using EMS-98 (European Macroseismic Scale). GPS data analyses showed stability in the horizontal components; the vertical component at stations located on the S and NE parts of the island showed subsidence.
Geological Summary. The triangular island of Hierro is the SW-most and least studied of the Canary Islands. The massive shield volcano is truncated by a large NW-facing escarpment formed as a result of gravitational collapse of El Golfo volcano about 130,000 years ago. The steep-sided scarp towers above a low lava platform bordering 12-km-wide El Golfo Bay, and three other large submarine landslide deposits occur to the SW and SE. Three prominent rifts oriented NW, NE, and S form prominent topographic ridges. The subaerial portion of the volcano consists of flat-lying Quaternary basaltic and trachybasaltic lava flows and tuffs capped by numerous young cinder cones and lava flows. Holocene cones and flows are found both on the outer flanks and in the El Golfo depression. Hierro contains the greatest concentration of young vents in the Canary Islands. Uncertainty surrounds the report of an eruption in 1793. A submarine eruption took place about 2 km SSW off the southern point of the island during 2011-12.