Report on Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand) — 3 November-9 November 2021
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
3 November-9 November 2021
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2021. Report on Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 3 November-9 November 2021. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
37.52°S, 177.18°E; summit elev. 294 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
On 9 November GeoNet reported results from a recent overflight of Whakaari/White Island. Gas measurements showed that sulfur dioxide emissions had increased from 267 tons per day recorded on 14 October to 681 tons per day. Additionally, carbon dioxide increased from 757 to 2712 tons per day and hydrogen sulfide increased from 10 to 38 tons per day. The gas data suggested that a pulse of gas was rising from molten material at depth. Temperatures in the main vent area were as high as 252 degrees Celsius, similar to temperatures first measured in September and onward. Very minor ash emissions were visible and deposits only extended around the active vents. The lake had slightly deepened from recent rainfall. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Geological Summary. The uninhabited Whakaari/White Island is the 2 x 2.4 km emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The island consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes. The SE side of the crater is open at sea level, with the recent activity centered about 1 km from the shore close to the rear crater wall. Volckner Rocks, sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NW. Descriptions of volcanism since 1826 have included intermittent moderate phreatic, phreatomagmatic, and Strombolian eruptions; activity there also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. The formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries caused rapid changes in crater floor topography. Collapse of the crater wall in 1914 produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and workers at a sulfur-mining project. Explosive activity in December 2019 took place while tourists were present, resulting in many fatalities. The official government name Whakaari/White Island is a combination of the full Maori name of Te Puia o Whakaari ("The Dramatic Volcano") and White Island (referencing the constant steam plume) given by Captain James Cook in 1769.