Report on Aira (Japan) — 29 December-4 January 2022
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 December-4 January 2022
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2021. Report on Aira (Japan) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 December-4 January 2022. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
31.5772°N, 130.6589°E; summit elev. 1117 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 27 December 2021 to 3 January 2022. An eruptive event at 2324 on 28 December produced an ash plume that rose 1.1 km above the crater rim. An eruptive event at 2105 on 1 January 2022 generated ash plumes that rose 1 km and ejected bombs 600-900 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Geological Summary. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim and built an island that was joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent eruptions since the 8th century have deposited ash on the city of Kagoshima, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest recorded eruption took place during 1471-76.