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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 29 December-4 January 2022
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Ambae Vanuatu 2021 Dec 5 New
Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Tonga Ridge New
Karangetang Sangihe Islands 2018 Nov 25 New
Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Reykjanes Peninsula New
Nyiragongo DR Congo 2002 May 17 (?) New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Semeru Eastern Java 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Davidof Aleutian Islands (USA) Continuing
Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Volcano Islands (Japan) Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Ibu Halmahera 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2020 Apr 1 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2021 Sep 29 Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 2014 Nov 18 Continuing
Pavlof Alaska Peninsula, Alaska 2021 Aug 5 Continuing
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica 2021 Jun 28 Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) 2021 Feb 2 ± 2 days Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Yasur Vanuatu 1774 Jul 2 (in or before) ± 182 days Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 17,813 individual reports over 1,116 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 320 different volcanoes.

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Agung Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Pinatubo Spurr
Ahyi Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa St. Helens
Aira Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Poas Stromboli
Akan Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sulu Range
Alaid Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Purace Sumbing
Alu-Dalafilla Davidof Irazu Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambae Dempo Iya Machin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambang Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambrym Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Anatahan Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Aniakchak Ebeko Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Marapi Raung Talang
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Martin Reventador Tanaga
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asamayama Epi Karangetang Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Askja Erebus Karkar Mauna Loa Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala Mayon Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky McDonald Islands Rotorua Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruang Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Awu Fernandina Katmai Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fogo Kavachi Misti, El Sabancaya Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelimutu Miyakejima Sakar Tofua
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelud Momotombo Salak Tokachidake
Bagana Fourpeaked Kerinci Monowai San Cristobal Tolbachik
Balbi Fuego Ketoi Montagu Island San Miguel Toliman
Bamus Fujisan Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Tongariro
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangay Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Galeras Kie Besi Myojinsho Sangeang Api Turrialba
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Nabro Santa Ana Ubinas
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sao Jorge Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gareloi Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarigan Ulawun
Brava Gaua Kizimen Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Unnamed
Bristol Island Gorely Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Bulusan Great Sitkin Kolokol Group Novarupta Savo Veniaminof
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semeru Villarrica
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nyamulagira Semisopochnoi Vulcano
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Seulawah Agam West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Okataina Sheveluch Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Okmok Shishaldin Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Ontakesan Simbo Witori
Chaiten Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Oraefajokull Sinabung Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla Kverkfjoll Osorno Sinarka Yasur
Chikurachki Helgrindur La Palma Pacaya Siple Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamington Pagan Sirung Zavodovski
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Lamongan Palena Volcanic Group Slamet Zhupanovsky
Chirinkotan Home Reef Langila Paluweh Snaefellsjokull Zubair Group
Chirpoi Hood Lanin Panarea Soputan
Ciremai Huaynaputina Lascar Papandayan Sorikmarapi
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Parker Sotara
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere Hills
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Pelee Soufriere St. Vincent
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Peuet Sague South Sarigan Seamount
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Ambae
The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) stated that ash-and-gas plumes from Ambae had recently become more noticeable and that residents had reported minor ashfall on roofs and crops. Webcam images showed ash plumes drifting ENE at 1730 and 1830 on 2 January. At 0600 on 3 January an ash-and-steam plume rose 5 km, though only the lower portion of the plume contained ash. At 0730 that same day an ash plume rose almost 1.6 km. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and the public was warned to stay outside of the Danger Zone defined as a 2-km radius around the active vents in Lake Voui and away from drainages during heavy rains.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai
The eruption at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai continued intermittently during 29 December 2021 to 4 January 2022, though by 3 January activity had significantly decreased. Several surges of Surtseyan activity, with some periods lasting as long as 30 minutes, occurred during 28-29 December; gas, steam, and ash plumes rose at least to 12.2 km (40,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, though the maximum altitude of the ash-rich portion of the plume was lower. Ashfall was local to areas around the island. Discolored water and rafts of pumice were visible in areas around the island on 30 December, and had been observed since the beginning of the eruption. Steam-and-gas plumes were visible throughout the day, interspersed with occasional tephra ejections. The plumes rose as high as 12 km (39,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE. During the morning of 31 December intermittent plumes of ash, steam, and gas rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. according to the Wellington VAAC, though the steam-and-gas portion of the plume rose as high as 18 km (59,000 ft) a.s.l. as stated by the Tonga Meteorological Services. The Met Services also noted that ash was no longer visible in the emissions starting around noon.

Steam-and-gas plumes were occasional visible in satellite data during 1-2 January. A small ash plume rose 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 2220-2230 on 3 January and drifted 10 m NE, dropping in altitude along the way. A cyclone that passed through the area during 3-4 January obscured views of the volcano.
Sources: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tonga Geological Services, Government of Tonga, Tonga Meteorological Services, Government of Tonga
Report for Karangetang
PVMBG reported that incandescence from Karangetang’s N crater was periodically visible during 31 December 2021 to 4 January 2022. Bluish-white emissions drifted S on 2 January. White-and-gray plumes rose as high as 200 m during 2-3 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Krysuvik-Trolladyngja
Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) reported that the earthquake swarm at the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system was ongoing with more than 19,000 earthquakes recorded during 21-28 December. Earthquakes M 4 or above totaled 14. The number and size of the earthquakes progressively decreased during 29 December 2021 to 3 January 2022; 200 events were recorded during 0000-1535 on 3 January. The seismicity was located along the same dyke system that fed the recent eruption at Geldingadalir. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Nyiragongo
OVG reported that voluminous gas plumes were visible rising from Nyiragongo and crater incandescence was visible during 3-5 January. Lava fountaining and collapses at active vents on the crater floor were observed along with a growing lava lake. Rumbling was sometimes audible.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG)
Report for Piton de la Fournaise
OVPF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise continued during 29 December 2021 to 4 January 2022. Weather clouds often obscured views of the vent, though visual observations were made daily. Low lava fountaining, with material rarely rising just above the crater rim, was visible on 29 December. A small mound with a vent that had grown at the base of the main cone was producing gas emissions, and lava advanced through a tube. Lava fountaining was slightly more intense during 30 December 2021 to 3 January 2022, with lava more frequently rising above the crater rim. Several breakouts of lava from the tube were noted downstream of the vent. The lava effusion rate was an estimated 2.3-9 meters per second, with peak rates of 21 meters per second, based on satellite data. Activity at the main cone decreased during 3-4 January. Lava flows within the first 100 m from the cone were an estimated 15 m thick. The flow field continued to widen but had not significantly lengthened.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 29 December 2021 to 4 January 2022. Crater incandescence was visible during the nights of 31 December-4 January. At 0431 on 31 December a pyroclastic flow was generated from the end of the lava flow and an ash plume that rose 2 km above the summit drifted N. A pyroclastic flow descended the Kobokan drainage a maximum distance of 5 km SE on 1 January. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose as high as 800 m above the summit during 3-4 January and drifted in multiple directions. A pyroclastic flow traveled 5 km SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 500 m away from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, and other drainages originating on Semeru including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 27 December 2021 to 3 January 2022. An eruptive event at 2324 on 28 December produced an ash plume that rose 1.1 km above the crater rim. An eruptive event at 2105 on 1 January 2022 generated ash plumes that rose 1 km and ejected bombs 600-900 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Davidof
AVO lowered both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level for Davidof to Unassigned on 31 December, noting that the earthquake swarm that had begun in early December had subsided. The closest seismometers are approximately 15 km E, on Little Sitkin Island. Davidof is also monitored by satellite data and remote infrasound and lightning networks.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba
The Japan Coast Guard reported that during a 27 December overflight of Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba, observers noted that the island formed in mid-August had become smaller since 14 December, and had almost eroded below the ocean surface. No eruptive activity was observed, though brownish water spouted from the E end of the island. Yellowish-green water and a string of floating pumice, 400 m long, was circulating 5 km E. Discolored water was visible around almost the entire coast of Minami-Ioto (5 km SSW).
Source: Japan Coast Guard
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 29 December 2021 to 4 January 2022 along with very low and persistent seismicity. Satellite images acquired on 29 December 2021 and 1 January 2022 showed that the lava flows on the W flanks had advanced. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that during 31 December 2021 to 4 January 2022 gray-and-white ash plumes from Ibu rose 200-1,000 m above the summit. Avalanches were detected daily, though not visually observed. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 28-30 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava effusion intermittently continued from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 29 December 2021 to 4 January 2022. Effusion at the vent paused on the evening of 29 December and the lake mostly crusted over, though lava oozed over the edge of the lake margins in several areas, suggesting a continuing supply of molten lava below the crust. Parts of the crusted lake overturned during 2000-2300. Occasional minor activity at the vent was visible during the morning of 30 December, and lava again began effusing form the vent at 1445. Several large lava overflows of the lake occurred in the evening and bright glow was visible in the evening sky from Volcano to lower Puna. Lava effusion was low during 1-2 January and by 0200 on 2 January the lake once again began to crust over. A large breakout along the N margin of the lake was active. Effusion ceased during 2-4 January; the lake was mostly crusted over except a few overturns N of the vent were noted. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 31 December 2021 to 4 January 2022. White-and-gray ash plumes that were sometimes dense rose as high as 600 m above the summit. Incandescent material was occasionally ejected from the vent up to 300 m from the vent and rumbling was sometimes heard. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported no notable morphological changes to Merapi’s summit lava dome, though the dome just below the SW rim had decreased about 3 m in height during 24-30 December. The estimated dome volumes were over 1.63 million cubic meters for the SW dome and just over 3 million cubic meters for the summit dome. The intensity of the seismic signals remained at high levels. As many as 175 lava avalanches traveled a maximum of 2 km SW down the Bebeng drainage, and two pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 1.8 km SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-5 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevado del Ruiz
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 28 December 2021 to 3 January 2022 seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was at similar levels to the week before, characterized by periods of continuous volcanic tremor, long-period events, and very-long-period earthquakes, indicating movement of fluids. These earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of Arenas Crater. Additional earthquake signals indicating rock fracturing were located in the SW, SE, and NE parts of the volcano. Several periods of “drumbeat” seismicity, indicting growth of the lava dome, were recorded during 29-30 December and 3 January. Several low-level thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images during the week. The highest gas-and-steam plume rose about 1.2 km above the summit, recorded on 3 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Pavlof
AVO reported that seismicity at Pavlof was elevated during 29 December 2021 to 4 January 2022 and was characterized by daily periods of tremor. Minor ash emissions were visible during 28-29 December and small explosions were occasionally recorded during 29-30 December. Thermal emissions continued to be low, and elevated surface temperatures consistent with a hot vent region were identified in satellite images during 1-3 January. During 3-4 January lava was active in an area within 100 m of the SE vent. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Rincon de la Vieja
OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1437 on 1 January a small eruption at Rincón de la Vieja produced a plume that rose 50 m above the crater rim. A small eruption was recorded by the seismic network at 0431 on 4 January, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation. The amplitude of the seismic signal was similar to those recorded for events occurring in the previous few weeks.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Sabancaya
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 32 explosions at Sabancaya during 27 December 2021 to 2 January 2022. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.8 km above the summit and drifted NW, W, and SW. Eight thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected near Hualca Hualca (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity and elevated seismicity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 29 December 2021 to 4 January 2022. Minor ash-and-steam emissions were visible in webcam images during 28-29 December. Ash plumes observed in webcam and satellite images on 31 December rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 100 km NE. Ash emissions observed in webcam images during daylight hours on 1 and 2 January were being blown down the flank by high winds. Small explosions were detected in seismic data during 2-4 January, though cloud cover obscured views. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 24-31 December. Intense steam-and-gas emissions were visible. Ash plumes rose as high as 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km NW and NE during 24-25, 27, and 30 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible nightly during 27 December 2021 to 3 January 2022. The number of explosions totaled 124. The explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and ejected material up to 1.1 km distance from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Yasur
On 30 December the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that activity at Yasur continued at a high level of “major unrest,” as defined by the Alert Level 2 status. Activity consisted of loud explosions, emissions of steam and ash, and the ejection of bombs that fell inside and around the crater area. Alert Level 2 is the middle level on a scale of 0-4. The public was reminded not to enter the restricted area within 600 m around the cone, defined by Danger Zone A on the hazard map.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)