Report on Kilauea (United States) — 2 February-8 February 2022
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 2 February-8 February 2022
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2022. Report on Kilauea (United States) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 2 February-8 February 2022. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
HVO reported that lava effusion at the vent of the main cone in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 2-8 February. The lake level fluctuated, likely reflecting variable lava supply along with periods of inflation and deflation. A small spatter cone, less than 6 m tall, located near the E end of the crater produced lava fountains that were 10 m tall in the evening of 1 February. The fountains fed a short flow confined to the E margin of the crater. Effusion from the W vent paused during around 0900-1730 on 2 February. During the rest of the week the effusion rate fluctuated; the lake continued to circulate, although less when the effusion rate was lower. Multiple ooze-outs of lava along the N, E, and S margins of the crater were visible. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.