Report on Sangay (Ecuador) — 23 November-29 November 2022
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
23 November-29 November 2022
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2022. Report on Sangay (Ecuador). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 23 November-29 November 2022. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
2.005°S, 78.341°W; summit elev. 5286 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 22-29 November, which included daily explosions, volcanic tremor, and gas-and-steam emissions. The daily count of explosions ranged from 920-1,320, though seismic data transmission was sometimes interrupted. Daily ash-and-gas plumes were identified in either or both IG webcam images and satellite images according to the Washington VAAC. Plumes rose as high as 2.1 km above the volcano and drifted in various directions. Sulfur dioxide emissions were measured daily and ranged from 491.2 tons per day to 3,693.5 tons per day. During 22-29 November crater incandescence was visible at night and early mornings. Pyroclastic flows descended the flanks during 24-29 November. Lava flows, incandescent blocks, and incandescent material descended the SE flank during 25-29 November.
Geological Summary. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within the open calderas of two previous edifices which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been eroded by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of an eruption was in 1628. Almost continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.