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Report on Marapi (Indonesia) — 31 January-6 February 2024


Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 31 January-6 February 2024
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2024. Report on Marapi (Indonesia) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 31 January-6 February 2024. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.

Weekly Report (31 January-6 February 2024)



0.38°S, 100.474°E; summit elev. 2885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing during 31 January-6 February. White gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 400 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions during 31 January-4 February. According to the Darwin VAAC an ash plume rose 400 m above the crater at 0430 on 3 February, though weather conditions prevented identification in satellite data. PVMBG noted that white-and-gray ash plumes rose 100-500 m above the summit and drifted S, SW, and W on 5 February. According to a news source, residents reported vibrations and noises from the volcano from an eruptive event at 1516 on 5 February. The Darwin VAAC reported that at 1528 and 1702 on 6 February ash plumes were identified in satellite images rising as high as 800 m above the summit and drifting S. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 4.5 km away from the active crater.

Geological Summary. Gunung Marapi, not to be confused with the better-known Merapi volcano on Java, is Sumatra's most active volcano. This massive complex stratovolcano rises 2,000 m above the Bukittinggi Plain in the Padang Highlands. A broad summit contains multiple partially overlapping summit craters constructed within the small 1.4-km-wide Bancah caldera. The summit craters are located along an ENE-WSW line, with volcanism migrating to the west. More than 50 eruptions, typically consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been recorded since the end of the 18th century; no lava flows outside the summit craters have been reported in historical time.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), FPMKI