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Report on Mayon (Philippines) — 28 February-5 March 2024


Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 February-5 March 2024
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2024. Report on Mayon (Philippines) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 February-5 March 2024. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.

Weekly Report (28 February-5 March 2024)



13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev. 2462 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

At 1730 on 5 March PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Mayon to 1 (on a 0-5 scale), noting that activity levels had steadily declined over the past two months. The number of volcanic earthquakes declined to an average of 2-3 events per day during the first week of January. Rockfalls from the summit dome occurred at a rate of 0-1 events per day, indicating that lava dome growth had slowed. Sulfur dioxide flux averaged 1,148 tonnes per day (t/d) in 2024, with a high value of 2,394 t/d on 22 January to a low of 420 t/d on 5 March; overall sulfur dioxide emissions remained above the background level of 500 t/d and were consistent with a non-eruptive, degassing dome. Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM), continuous GPS, and electronic tilt monitoring data showed that the volcano remained inflated overall, though deflation was detected at the mid-north flanks and inflation was detected at the upper flanks and generally on the S flank. Incandescence at the summit was weak and only visible with the aid of a telescope. No movement of the lava flows in the Mi-Isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages was observed. Residents were reminded to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and pilots were advised to avoid flying close to the summit.

Geological Summary. Symmetrical Mayon, which rises above the Albay Gulf NW of Legazpi City, is the most active volcano of the Philippines. The steep upper slopes are capped by a small summit crater. Recorded eruptions since 1616 CE range from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often damaged populated lowland areas. A violent eruption in 1814 killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)