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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 28 February-5 March 2024
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Fernandina Ecuador New
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 New
Reykjanes Iceland 2023 Dec 18 New
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
El Misti Peru Continuing
Gareloi United States Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Huaynaputina Peru Continuing
Ibu Indonesia 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Lewotobi Indonesia 2023 Dec 23 Continuing
Marapi Indonesia 2023 Dec 3 Continuing
Mayon Philippines 2023 Apr 27 ± 2 days Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Taal Philippines 2024 Apr 12 Continuing
Ubinas Peru 2024 May 6 Continuing
Villarrica Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,183 individual reports over 1,223 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Fernandina
IG-EPN reported that an eruption at Fernandina began around 2350 on 2 March from a circumferential fissure on the upper SE flank. The fissure possibly propagated 3-5 km and produced a gas emission with low ash content that rose 2-3 km above the summit and drifted W, NNW, and SSE. The emission was detected in satellite data and the fissure was confirmed by pictures shared on social media and reports from Parque Nacional Galápagos. The emissions were intense until about 0400 on 3 March before decreasing. More than 1,000 thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images during 0044-0135 corresponding to multiple lava flows descending the SE flank. Sulfur dioxide emissions were about 46,460 tons per day (t/d) at 1327 on 3 March, based on satellite data. During 3-4 March gas plumes with low to no ash content continued to be identified in satellite images, drifting WSW. Hundreds of thermal anomalies were detected in satellite data with some of the intensities of the anomalies being characterized as high, very high, and extreme. Sulfur dioxide emissions had decreased to about 24,000 t/d at 1327 on 4 March, based on satellite data. Observations by park rangers during 4-5 March indicated that activity had decreased and the lava flows had only advanced slightly. Satellite data indicated that sulfur dioxide emissions continued to decline and were about 2,228 t/d at 1247 on 5 March. Gas plumes rose 370-970 m above the summit and drifted WSW. Hundreds of thermal anomalies continued to be detected during 5-6 March with a few being characterized as high to very high. The lava flows had traveled as far as 7.9 km based on satellite data and maps.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Parque Nacional Galápagos
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 28 February-5 March. Daily white-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 900 m above the summit and drifted NW, E, and SE. The lava flow on the SE flank was 2 km long and the flow on the S flank was 600 m long; the distal end of the longer flow did not advance, though lava effusion continued, and new flows possibly overlapped the older flows. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the vent and 3 km away from the vent on the S and SE flank. According to a news article residents were asked to bring their livestock into the villages.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News, Antara News
Report for Reykjanes
IMO reported that magma continued to accumulate beneath Svartsengi after the 8-9 February eruption and by 1230 on 29 February had reached an estimated 8.5-9 million cubic meters. The accumulated volume of magma before previous recent eruptions near the Sundhnúkar crater row was 8-13 million cubic meters. The rate of inflation had been relatively constant; the inflation had decreased just before the start of previous eruptions.

An intense seismic swarm began at 1555 on 2 March near the southern end of the fissure that formed on 18 December 2023. The seismic data suggested that magma was migrating S and not propagating to the surface. IMO raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) at 1651. According to a news article the Blue Lagoon tourist area and Grindavík were evacuated, though not many people were in Grindavík at the time. Deformation changes were noted by 1730, followed by a decline in seismicity around 1800 and the end of the swarm by 2000; the intrusion had stopped beneath Hagafell cone. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow at 0812 on 3 March. The volume of lava that propagated out of Svartsengi was small compared to previous episode that culminated in eruptions. The Blue Lagoon reopened to visitors on 4 March.
Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV)
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 27 February-4 March with nighttime crater incandescence. Eruptive events at 0202 on 27 February and at 1429 on 2 March generated ash plumes that rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted E and rose 1.3 km above the crater rim and drifted SE, respectively. An explosion at 2149 on 2 March produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted S and ejected large blocks 300-500 m from the vent. An explosion at 2026 on 3 March produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km and drifted SE and ejected large blocks 600-900 m from the vent. Sulfur dioxide emissions were extremely high, averaging 3,700 tons per day on 1 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 28 February-5 March. Gray-and-white ash plumes generally rose 100-600 m above the summit and drifted S and W. On 1 March gray-and-white ash plumes rose 1.5-1.6 km above the summit and drifted N. Emissions were not observed on 29 February and on 4 March. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 22-29 February. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions during 26-27 February generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 26 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for El Misti
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that a lahar descended the SE flank of El Misti at 1438 on 5 March. The public was warned to stay away from drainages and roads on that flank.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Gareloi
AVO reported that volcanic activity at Gareloi had decreased during the previous few weeks and that, although small earthquakes continue to be recorded, the current activity was at background levels. At 1150 on 5 March the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal (the lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green (the lowest color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion likely continued in Great Sitkin’s summit crater during 28 February-5 March. A few small daily volcanic earthquakes were recorded by the seismic network on most days. Weather clouds partly obscured satellite and webcam views during most of the week. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Huaynaputina
IGP reported that at 1622 on 29 February and at 1436 on 3 March lahars descended the El Volcán drainage, on the S flank of Huaynaputina, and traveled towards the Tambo River. The public was warned to stay away from the drainage and to be cautious when traveling along the Quinistaquillas-Sijuaya highway.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that Ibu continued to erupt during 28 February-5 March. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 200-1,500 m above the summit and drifted NW, W, and SW. Ashfall was reported in residential areas to the W on 2 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (the second highest level on a four-level scale), with the public advised to stay outside of the 2 km hazard zone and 3.5 km away from the N area of the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotobi
PVMBG reported that white plumes rose as high as 300 m above the summit of Lewotobi’s Laki-laki volcano during 28 February-5 March. According to a news article, seismicity and visual observations showed that activity decreased during 22-29 February. Drone footage indicated that the lava flow was cooling, and effusion had stopped, though the flow may continue to slowly advance due to gravity, the slope of the ground, and the high temperature. PVMBG lowered the Alert Level to 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-4) at 1900 on 1 March and the public was warned to stay outside of the exclusion zone, defined as a 2-km radius around Laki-laki crater, 3 km to the NNE, and 5 km on the NE flanks.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing during 28 February-5 March. White-and-gray gas-and-ash plumes rose 200-500 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions on most days; emissions were not observed on 28 February and 5 March. Crater incandescence was visible to residents from multiple directions during the evening of 29 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 4.5 km away from the active crater.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)
Report for Mayon
At 1730 on 5 March PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Mayon to 1 (on a 0-5 scale), noting that activity levels had steadily declined over the past two months. The number of volcanic earthquakes declined to an average of 2-3 events per day during the first week of January. Rockfalls from the summit dome occurred at a rate of 0-1 events per day, indicating that lava dome growth had slowed. Sulfur dioxide flux averaged 1,148 tonnes per day (t/d) in 2024, with a high value of 2,394 t/d on 22 January to a low of 420 t/d on 5 March; overall sulfur dioxide emissions remained above the background level of 500 t/d and were consistent with a non-eruptive, degassing dome. Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM), continuous GPS, and electronic tilt monitoring data showed that the volcano remained inflated overall, though deflation was detected at the mid-north flanks and inflation was detected at the upper flanks and generally on the S flank. Incandescence at the summit was weak and only visible with the aid of a telescope. No movement of the lava flows in the Mi-Isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages was observed. Residents were reminded to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and pilots were advised to avoid flying close to the summit.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 23-29 February. Seismicity remained at high levels and was slightly higher than the previous week. The SW lava dome produced 139 lava avalanches that descended the S and SW flanks as far as 1.6 km. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome identified in webcam images were due to continuing effusion and collapses of material. A series of pyroclastic flows traveled 1.2-2.4 km down the SW flank during 1603-1837 on 4 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 28 February-5 March. Daily gray-and-white ash plumes, that were often dense, rose 400-1,000 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the third highest level on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that eruptive activity at Sheveluch continued during 22-29 February with a daily thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. On 26 February plumes of resuspended ash drifted 120 km SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 26 February-4 March. Crater incandescence was observed in webcam images nightly and large blocks were sometimes ejected up to 600 m from the vent. Explosions recorded at 0431, 1402, 1910, and 1918 on 26 February, and at 0135, 0249, and 0617 on 27 February produced ash plumes that rose 500-800 m above the crater rim and drifted S. An eruptive event at 0104 on 28 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.4 km above the crater rim and drifted S. Explosions at 1537 on 28 February and 0013 on 2 March generated ash plumes that rose 500-600 m and drifted W and SE, respectively. An explosion was recorded at 0255 on 1 March but emission details were unknown. Ash plumes from eruptive events at 1530 on 3 March and 0905 on 4 March produced ash plumes that rose 800-1,300 m above the crater rim; the 3 March plume rose into weather clouds. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW), though dates were not specified. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Taal
In a special report issued for Taal, PHIVOLCS noted that sulfur dioxide emissions were 14,558 tonnes per day (t/d) on 29 February, the second highest value recorded during 2024. Sulfur dioxide emissions have been continuously released since 2021 and averaged 9,450 t/d during February 2024. Seismicity has remained at baseline levels with only three volcanic earthquakes recorded in February. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5), and PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island was a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Ubinas
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that lahars on the SE flank of Ubinas descended through the Volcánmayo drainage towards the Ubinas River at 1654 on 29 February and at 1541 on 4 March. The public was warned to stay away from the drainage and to avoid driving on the Querapi-Ubinas-Huarina highway.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Villarrica
SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruption at Villarrica continued during 29 February-5 March. At 1759 on 3 March a gas-and-ash plume rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted NE. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the active crater.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)