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Report on Merapi (Indonesia) — 12 June-18 June 2024


Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 12 June-18 June 2024
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2024. Report on Merapi (Indonesia) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 12 June-18 June 2024. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.

Weekly Report (12 June-18 June 2024)



7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 7-13 June. Seismicity had decreased compared to the previous week. The SW lava dome produced 122 lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.8 km down the upper part of the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank. Two pyroclastic flows descended the Bebeng, traveling as far as 1 km, at 2025 on 8 June and at 0406 on 9 June; the 8 June pyroclastic flow produced minor ashfall at the Merapi Observation Post in Kaliurang (8 km S). Morphological changes to the SW lava dome were due to continuing effusion and collapses of material. The volume of the SW dome was an estimated 2,265,200 cubic meters and the dome in the main crater was stable at an estimated 2,362,800 cubic meters based on a 13 June drone survey and webcam images. The highest temperature of the SW dome was around 245 degrees Celsius, two degrees higher than the 6 June measurement. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.

Geological Summary. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2,000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequent growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities.

Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)