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Meru

Photo of this volcano
  • Tanzania
  • Kenyan Rift Zone
  • Composite | Stratovolcano
  • 1910 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Province
  • Landform | Volc Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 3.244°S
  • 36.75°E

  • 4550 m
    14928 ft

  • 222160
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports available for Meru.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Meru.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Meru.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 4 confirmed Holocene eruptive periods.

1910 Oct 26 - 1910 Dec 22 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Ash Cone
1910 Oct 26 - 1910 Dec 22 Evidence from Observations: Reported
 Small ash eruption from Ash Cone. Guest and Leedal (1953) mention activity on 13 and 26 October 1910, but Richard and Neumann van Padang (1957), who cite this report, lists 26 October as the start of the eruption.

List of 2 Events for Episode 1 at Ash Cone

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1910 Oct 26    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index) VEI 2

1886 (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 0

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Dome NW of Ash Cone
1886 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported
 Lava flows from a dome NW of Ash Cone (CAVW: Richard and Neumann van Padang, 1957; Cattermole, 1982).

List of 2 Events for Episode 1 at Dome NW of Ash Cone

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
1886
(?)
   - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index) VEI 0

1878 ± 1 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Dome NW of Ash Cone
1878 ± 1 years - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported
 The eruption date for lava flows from a dome at the NW base of Ash Cone has been variously listed as 1878 (Cattermole, 1982), 1877 (CAVW: Richard and Neumann van Padang, 1957), and 1879 (Guest and Leedal, 1953); CAVW also lists explosive activity.

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at Dome NW of Ash Cone

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
1878 ± 1 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index) VEI 2

5850 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Momella debris avalanche deposit
5850 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
 The large breached caldera formed about 7,800 years ago, accompanied by Plinian eruptions and massive debris avalanches and lahars that cover wide areas below the E flank.

List of 5 Events for Episode 1 at Momella debris avalanche deposit

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Avalanche
   - - - -    - - - - Lahar or Mudflow
   - - - -    - - - - Edifice Destroyed Collapse/avalanche
5850 BCE
(?)
   - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index) VEI 4
Deformation History

There is no Deformation History data available for Meru.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Meru.

Photo Gallery

An aerial view across the summit plateau of Kilimanjaro looks west towards Meru stratovolcano in the distance. The nested craters in the center are the youngest features of the volcano. They cut a summit ash cone that has grown within a 2.4 x 3.6 caldera, whose rim is seen at the left.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1977.
Meru volcano, Africa's fourth highest mountain, rises to the west of its more prominent neighbor, Kilimanjaro. Seen here from the slopes of Kilimanjaro, 4565-m-high Meru is cut by a 5-km-wide breached caldera on the east side that formed about 7800 years ago when the summit of the volcano collapsed. The resulting massive debris avalanche and lahar traveled as far as the western flank of Kilimanjaro volcano. The historically active Ash Cone forms a prominent symmetrical cone inside the breached caldera.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1977.
The northern wall of the horseshoe-shaped caldera cutting the summit of Meru volcano rises vertically up to 900 m above the caldera floor. The 5-km-wide caldera is breached to the east and was formed as a result of a massive volcanic landslide about 7800 years ago.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1977.
Meru volcano (upper right), Africa's fourth highest mountain, is seen from the ice-covered summit plateau of neighboring Kilimanjaro volcano. The volcano is cut by a 5-km-wide breached caldera on the E side that formed about 7,800 years ago when the summit collapsed. A massive debris avalanche and lahar traveled to the east as far as the western flank of Kilimanjaro.

Photo by Tom Jorstad, 1991 (Smithsonian Institution).
GVP Map Holdings

Maps are not currently available due to technical issues.

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Meru in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

External Sites