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Ksudach

Photo of this volcano
  • Russia
  • Stratovolcano
  • 1907 CE
  •  
  • Country
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  •  
  • 51.844°N
  • 157.572°E

  • 1079 m
    3540 ft

  • 300050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Ksudach.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Ksudach.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Ksudach.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 15 confirmed Holocene eruptive periods.

1907 Mar 28 (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 5

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Stubel, KSht3 tephra
1907 Mar 28 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 6 Events for Episode 1 at Stubel, KSht3 tephra

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion extremely violent or catastrophic
   - - - -    - - - - Directed Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Ash violent, strong, or large
   - - - -    - - - - Pumice violent, strong, or large
1907 Mar 28 (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1750 (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Stubel, KSht2 tephra
1750 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 4 Events for Episode 1 at Stubel, KSht2 tephra

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Pumice
   - - - -    - - - - Lahar or Mudflow
1750 (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1000 ± 50 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Stubel, KSht1 tephra
1000 ± 50 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 4 Events for Episode 1 at Stubel, KSht1 tephra

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Pumice
1000 ± 50 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

0700 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0700 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion

0350 (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Stubel
0350 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at Stubel

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Lava dome Uncertain
0350 (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

0240 ± 100 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 6

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Ksudach V caldera, Tephra layer KS1
0240 ± 100 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 9 Events for Episode 1 at Ksudach V caldera, Tephra layer KS1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Caldera Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli
   - - - -    - - - - Bombs
   - - - -    - - - - Pumice
0240 ± 100 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

0200 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0200 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
0200 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

3000 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Tephra layer KSbt
3000 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 4 Events for Episode 1 at Tephra layer KSbt

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Pumice
3000 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

4100 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
4100 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
4100 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

4550 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
4550 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Pumice
4550 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

4750 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode SW part of caldera IV (Paryashchiy Utes)
4750 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at SW part of caldera IV (Paryashchiy Utes)

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Lava dome
   - - - -    - - - - Ash

4900 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 5

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Ksudach IV caldera, Tephra layer KS2
4900 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 8 Events for Episode 1 at Ksudach IV caldera, Tephra layer KS2

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Caldera Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli
   - - - -    - - - - Bombs
4900 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

5200 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 5

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Ksudach IV caldera, Tephra layer KS3
5200 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 9 Events for Episode 1 at Ksudach IV caldera, Tephra layer KS3

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Caldera Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli
   - - - -    - - - - Bombs
   - - - -    - - - - Pumice
5200 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

5600 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5600 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

7900 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 5

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Ksudach III caldera, Tephra layer KS4
7900 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 8 Events for Episode 1 at Ksudach III caldera, Tephra layer KS4

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Caldera Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli
   - - - -    - - - - Bombs
   - - - -    - - - - Pumice
7900 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)
Deformation History

There is no Deformation History data available for Ksudach.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Ksudach.

Photo Gallery

The NE wall of the Ksudach Shtyubel' crater is capped by bedded layers of tephra fall, pyroclastic flow, and pyroclastic surge deposits from the 1907 eruption. Three craters, 1.5, 0.6, and 0.4 km wide, formed along a NE-SW line. The eruption reduced the height of Shtyubel' cone by about 650 m and Shtyubel' lake filled the craters. The NE wall of Ksudach V caldera, inside which Shtyubel' cone was constructed, is visible at the top of the photo.

Photo by Yuri Doubik (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
One of the largest 20th-century eruptions in Kamchatka took place in March 1907 from Shtyubel' Crater (center) within the Ksudach caldera. Plinian explosive eruptions deposited 1.5 km3 of ash that extended as far as 1,000 km to the NNE. Plinian activity was followed by a laterally-directed explosion and the destruction of the Shtyubel' cone. Pyroclastic flows and surges traveled to the NW and over the Ksudach caldera walls. The eruption formed a chain of three craters (seen here from the NE) and lowered the height of the cone by about 650 m.

Photo by Yuri Doubik (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Lake Kluchevoe occupies the Ksudach IV caldera, which was formed during major explosive eruptions about 6,000 years ago. This view looks across the caldera lake to the southern caldera wall. The caldera rim forms the right-hand horizon. The caldera wall in this photo consists of two caldera rims, Ksudach IV to the right, and the late-Pleistocene Ksudach II caldera rim to the left. The Zamok lava dome is across the lake to the left-center.

Photo by Andrei Tvsestov.
The Ksudach IV caldera, now partly filled by lake Kluchevoe, formed during major explosive eruptions about 6,000 years ago. This view looks across the caldera lake to the SE walls of two calderas. The rim of the 700-m-high inner Ksudach IV caldera wall forms a bench that appears to be about 2/3 of the way up the cliff. The 3.5 x 4 km Ksudach IV caldera was the second Ksudach caldera to form during the Holocene. It formed within the 6 x 7.5 km late-Pleistocene Ksudach II caldera, whose rim forms the horizon.

Photo by Oleg Volynets (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
A major explosive eruption about 1,800 years ago produced 10-15 km3 of tephra, including widespread pyroclastic flows, associated with formation of the 3.5 x 4.5 km Ksudach V caldera. The NE caldera wall forms the cliff to the upper left. Soon after this eruption, about 1,600 years ago, Shtyubel' cone began growing in the center of the caldera. A major eruption in 1907 created three large NE-SW-trending maar craters in the center of the photo. The craters have been largely filled by a lake.

Photo by Nikolai Smelov, 1996 (courtesy of Vera Ponomareva, Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Petropavlovsk).
Ksudach, the large volcano seen here from the SW, contains five calderas with the northern of two caldera lakes (center) forming an embayment in Shtyubel' Crater. Situated within the youngest caldera, Ksudach V, Shtyubel’ has been active since about 1,600 years ago and an eruption in 1907 was one of Kamchatka's largest in historical time.

Photo by Nikolai Smelov, 1996 (courtesy of Vera Ponomareva, Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Petropavlovsk).
The small, low-angle, snow-free volcano near the center of this NASA International Space Station image (with N to the right) is Ozernoy volcano. This early Holocene cone is dwarfed by the Ksudach caldera to the SE (lower left).

NASA International Space Station image ISS005-E-19216, 2002 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
GVP Map Holdings

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included. The maps database originated over 30 years ago, but was only recently updated and connected to our main database. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email.


Title: USSR (Kamchatka S & Kuriles)
Publisher: DMA
Country: Kuril-I
Year: 1988
Series: TPC
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:500,000
Map of USSR (Kamchatka S & Kuriles)

Title: Kamchatsky Peninsula Topo Map
Country: USSR
Year: 1986
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of Kamchatsky Peninsula Topo Map

Title: Severo-Kurilsk
Country: USSR
Year: 1965
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:500,000
Map of Severo-Kurilsk

Title: Shimushu
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1944
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Shimushu

Title: Shimushu-To
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Kuril-I
Year: 1944
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Shimushu-To
Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 17 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections, and may be availble for research (contact the Rock and Ore Collections Manager). Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description Lava Source Collection Date
NMNH 116556-10 Dacitic Pumice -- --
NMNH 116556-13 Allivalite -- --
NMNH 116556-50 Volcanic Ash -- --
NMNH 116556-54 Pumice -- --
NMNH 116556-55 Andesite Pumice -- --
NMNH 116556-56 Pumice -- --
NMNH 116556-57 Andesite Pumice -- --
NMNH 116556-58 Pumice -- --
NMNH 116556-59 Andesite -- --
NMNH 116556-64 Andesite -- --
NMNH 116556-67 Pumice -- --
NMNH 116556-69 Andesite -- --
NMNH 116556-79 Andesite -- --
NMNH 116556-80 Andesite -- --
NMNH 116556-81 Dacite -- --
NMNH 116556-82 Dacite -- --
NMNH 116556-84 Basalt -- --
External Sites