Global Volcanism Program | Image GVP-05717
A major explosive eruption about 1,800 years ago produced 10-15 km3 of tephra, including widespread pyroclastic flows, associated with formation of the 3.5 x 4.5 km Ksudach V caldera. The NE caldera wall forms the cliff to the upper left. Soon after this eruption, about 1,600 years ago, Shtyubel' cone began growing in the center of the caldera. A major eruption in 1907 created three large NE-SW-trending maar craters in the center of the photo. The craters have been largely filled by a lake.
Photo by Nikolai Smelov, 1996 (courtesy of Vera Ponomareva, Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Petropavlovsk).
This image is made available under the Creative Commons BY-NC 4.0 license terms.