Image Collection | Types and Features | Calderas
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Calderas are large depressions formed through subsidence, spanning up to 50 km in diameter an varying widely in volume and magma composition. They usually form when magma has drained during large explosive eruptions or lava flows, resulting in significant subsidence of the overlying ground, or incrementally through smaller collapse events. Large VEI 8 eruptions are rare, with more common scenarios including hydrothermal (steam) explosions, lava flows, and smaller explosive eruptions. Hazards include steam explosions, geothermal features (hot mud pools and water), earthquakes, lava flows, pyroclastic flows (also called pyroclastic density currents), ashfall, lahars, and ballistic ejecta.