Activity for the week of 7 March-13 March 2001
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Chuginadak Island (USA)
| 52.825°N, 169.944°W
| Elevation 1730 m
The AVO reported that an explosive eruption at Cleveland began at 0500 on 11 March. The resultant ash cloud was visible on satellite imagery from the onset of the eruption and after it ended 3 hours later. Wind-data analysis suggested that the ash cloud reached a height of 6-7.6 km a.s.l. By 1400 the main part of the ash cloud was detached from the volcano and drifting to the E. Satellite imagery from 2030 showed that the ash cloud was located in two main regions; one region was centered ~80 km S of Dutch Harbor and was ~80 km in diameter, and the other was centered ~160 km SE of Dutch Harbor and extended ~160 km E to W and ~65 km N to S. Both areas of ash were visible on satellite imagery through 1315 on 12 March. In addition, a thermal anomaly on the volcano, which was first detected shortly after the eruption began, persisted. AVO interpreted the thermal anomaly to indicate that unrest was continuing at Cleveland and that further explosive activity could occur at anytime. By 0930 on 13 March the ash cloud was no longer visible on satellite imagery.
Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Luzon (Philippines)
| 13.257°N, 123.685°E
| Elevation 2462 m
PHIVOLCS reported that during 7 to 13 March, 6-33 low-frequency earthquakes were recorded daily. One SO2 emission measurement was made during the week on 4 March, with a reading of 1,750 metric tons. Like the previous weeks, a slight inflationary trend was detected at the volcano's edifice and weak-to-moderate steaming was occasionally seen. At 1509 on 11 March a brief ash discharge reached a height of 150 m and drifted to the SW. At 1940 the same day faint incandescence was observed at the crater using a telescope; graded as level 1 intensity. Mayon remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 0-5).
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
| DR Congo
| 1.408°S, 29.2°E
| Elevation 3058 m
The eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 5 February continued, with lava flows mainly travelling down the S flank of the volcano. The UN Integrated Regional Information Network reported on 27 February that a UN-government assessment team that visited the town of Goma, ~40 km S of the volcano, determined that ash and lava from the eruption had damaged agriculture and livestock. The team warned that there was an urgent need for food, medicine, and vegetable seeds in the affected areas of Goma, Kitshanga, and Kalungu. According to the Goma Volcanological Observatory, a new eruption began on 2 March with eruptive activity concentrated mainly on the S flank. The Observatory stated that wind had blown ash towards the W and ash fall had destroyed ~50 km2 of pasture and 150 km2 of crops up to 30 km from the volcano in the towns of Rusaya, Kirolirwe, Burungu, Minova, the Masisi territory, and the S part of Kichanga. Ash and gas from the eruption have caused many people in those areas and Goma to experience fever, diarrhea, headache, conjunctivitis, and respiratory problems.
Sources: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), IRIN News, Reuters
| DR Congo
| 1.52°S, 29.25°E
| Elevation 3470 m
The Goma Volcanological Observatory reported that there may be renewed volcanic activity at Nyiragongo volcano, ~10 km SE of Nyamuragira volcano. The observatory stated that during the current eruption of Nyamuragira the temperature increased in Nyiragongo's main cone and Shaheru fissure, ~3 km S of the summit. In addition, new fumaroles were observed inside Nyiragongo's main crater and along the fissure connecting the main crater and Shaheru cone. Cracks that were observed in the crater of the main cone suggested that dilatation of the crater had occurred.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG)
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3320 m
According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, during the first half of March mild, but occasionally vigorous eruptive activity continued at Etna's summit craters much like it has since mid January. Near-continuous Strombolian activity continued at two vents in Bocca Nuova Crater and Strombolian activity intermittently occurred within the central pit of the Northeast Crater. Short lobes of lava continued to form after slowly emerging from a vent on the NNE flank of the Southeast Crater cone.
Source: Italy's Volcanoes
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
Lava slowly flowed SE down the Pulama pali and across the coastal plain in a broad flow front, ~1.5 km wide. Much of the flow front was within 1-1.3 km of the coastline, with the closest point ~700 m from the coast. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o was low-to-moderate and tremor at Kilauea's caldera was low. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the E rift zone showed flat signals.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.056°N, 160.642°E
| Elevation 4754 m
The KVERT reported that during 2-8 March seismicity was at background levels, with weak spasmodic tremor occasionally registered. On 4 March a gas-and-steam plume rose 600-1,000 m above the volcano and extended more than 10 km to the NE. As reported by the Tokyo VAAC, GMS-5 imagery showed that the plume rose to a height of ~9.5 km a.s.l. The Concern Color Code remained at Green.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Sulawesi (Indonesia)
| 1.358°N, 124.792°E
| Elevation 1580 m
The VSI reported that visual observations made during 27 February to 5 March revealed that activity decreased at Lokon-Empung. Only small-to-medium sized steam plumes were observed rising 50-150 m above the crater. The Alert level was reduced from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| Central Java (Indonesia)
| 7.54°S, 110.446°E
| Elevation 2910 m
Visual and instrumental monitoring conducted by VSI personnel revealed that volcanic activity at Merapi had decreased; therefore on 7 March the Alert Level was reduced from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). During 27 February- 5 March, volcanic activity was dominated by an average of 100 lava avalanches per day. The avalanche material traveled to the SW, entering the Sat and Senowo rivers with runout distances of 2.3-2.5 km. On 6 March a pyroclastic flow deposited material up to 1.5 km down the Sat River.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
CENAPRED reported that Popocatépetl's activity was at low-to-moderate levels during most of the week, with small exhalations accompanied by steam emissions. Based on reports from the Mexico MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that at 2024 on 12 March an ash cloud from an exhalation of Popocatépetl was observed at a height of ~ 7 km a.s.l. The ash cloud was not visible on GOES-8 imagery. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted area of 12-km-radius.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
The KVERT reported that during 2-6 March, several series of shallow earthquakes were registered, with some followed by weak spasmodic volcanic tremor. The bursts of activity may have corresponded to weak ash-and-gas explosions that rose to heights of 2-3 km above the crater. During 3-4 March, visual and satellite-based data revealed that a gas-and-ash plume rose 300-800 m above the crater and drifted more than 50 km to the E. At 1545 on 7 March seismic data indicated the probable occurrence of a short-lived gas-and-ash explosion, accompanied by a series of shallow and high-frequency earthquakes for ~15 minutes. Observers in Klyuchi town reported that at 1600 the same day the ash-and-gas plume rose 1.5 km above the lava dome and extended to the NW. According to a pilot report, at 1620 the ash plume was visible at a height of 10 km above the volcano drifting towards the NE. The AVO reported that satellite imagery at 1715 showed two plumes: one was at a low altitude, composed mostly of steam, and drifted to the E; the other was located 7-8 km a.s.l., composed mostly of ash, and drifted to the N. At 1625 the Tokyo VAAC detected the ash cloud on GMS-5 imagery at a height of ~10 km a.s.l. The ash cloud was no longer visible on satellite imagery by 0342 on 8 March. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
The MVO reported that during 2-9 March activity decreased at Soufrière Hills volcano in comparison to the previous week, with the lava dome returning to a steady growth rate. Early in the report week the banded tremor recorded the previous week died away, as did the associated hybrid earthquakes. Rockfall activity increased during the middle of the week, returning to more usual levels. The volcano appeared to have resumed steady dome growth by the end of the week. Observations confirmed that the main area of lava-dome growth had switched to the S of the dome on 25 February, which led to a concentration of rockfall activity in the upper portions of the White River Valley. Light ashfall from activity during the week was blown over the N of the island, although by the end of the week the wind switched back to the more usual direction towards the W. The Washington VAAC reported that throughout the week low-level ash clouds (up to ~3 km a.s.l.), presumably produced by rockfalls, and periodic hot-spot activity were visible on GOES-8 imagery.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
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