Activity for the week of 7 November-13 November 2001
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| 12.702°N, 87.004°W
| Elevation 1745 m
INETER stated that during the evening of 12 November small ash emissions took place at San Cristóbal. The emissions produced ash clouds that remained around summit level. According to the Washington VAAC, on 12 November at 1645 GOES-8 imagery showed a small area of possible ash drifting NW. According to ground observations, moderate volcanic activity occurred until 1800. Ash had dissipated by 2100 and the next day there were no ground reports of volcanic activity.
Sources: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| United States
| 46.2°N, 122.18°W
| Elevation 2549 m
The swarm of tiny earthquakes that began at Mount St. Helens on the evening of 2 November ended by noon of 4 November. During this period ~2,000 earthquakes occurred that may have been related to increasing ground water levels due to autumn rain. Most of the earthquakes had magnitudes less than 0. The largest event, M 1.9, occurred shortly before noon on the 4th. All located events were shallow (< 2 km) and in or below the lava dome or crater floor near the dome. Most of the events were too small to locate accurately. After the main swarm, during 4 November to at least 10 November, about 10 small, shallow earthquakes occurred per day.
Sources: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Associated Press
| 19.514°N, 103.62°W
| Elevation 3850 m
Photographs of Colima taken on 3 November revealed that a spine had grown on the May 2001 lava dome. The light-colored spine was about 40 m tall, 40 meters wide at its base, and smooth with vertical walls. During early November seismicity was low, with about 10 earthquakes occurring per day. As of 7 November, significant changes in deformation were recorded.
Source: Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima
| Solomon Islands
| 8.991°S, 157.979°E
| Elevation -20 m
As of 1 November no eruptive activity had been observed at Kavachi for about 5 weeks. Kavachi was watched from the coast of Gatokae Island, at a post about 26 km from the volcano. Low-level activity may well have occurred that was not visible from this observation post.
Source: The Wilderness Lodge
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
Lava continued to flow into the sea at the Kamoamoa, Kupapa`u, and E Kupapa`u entries. Surface lava flows were visible along the Kamoamoa lava tube system and just inland from the Kupapa`u entry. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low-to-moderate levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Tremor was relatively low at the summit, but a fairly large number of tiny earthquakes occurred. Bursts of higher-amplitude tremor were interspersed with more continuous tremor at Pu`u `O`o. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Piton de la Fournaise
| Reunion Island (France)
| 21.244°S, 55.708°E
| Elevation 2632 m
Increased seismicity and deformation at Piton de la Fournaise occurred for about 6 weeks prior to 12 November. On 5 November a seismic crisis occurred when 129 earthquakes were recorded that day. The earthquake's hypocenters were located 0.6-2 km under Bory crater. As of 12 November, approximately 30-50 earthquakes occurred per day, and slight swelling had been recorded at the summit.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
On 10 November at 0324 a small explosive event produced an ash column that rose 1 km above Popocatépetl's summit and drifted to the E. CENAPRED's volcano camera showed incandescent fragments hurled up to 300 m E. During the rest of the week, volcanic activity at Popocatépetl remained low, with emissions of small clouds of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
During 2-9 November a lava dome continued to grow in Shiveluch's active crater, and several eruptions produced ash, steam, and gas clouds. Inclement weather prevented visual observations of several possible gas-and-ash eruptions on 7 November. However, seismic data suggested these eruptions produced clouds that rose to 6.5-7.5 km. During 1630-1720 ash fell in Klyuchi town ~46 km from the volcano. A thermal anomaly in the active dome area was visible on satellite imagery on 2 November. Spasmodic volcanic tremor and weak, shallow seismic signals (possible collapses and avalanches) were registered. The intensity of volcanic tremor continued to grow slowly during the report period.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
Activity at Soufrière Hills increased slightly during 2-7 November, and intensified on the 8th and 9th. The lava dome continued to grow mainly towards the E and at night parts of it were incandescent. Small pyroclastic flows and numerous rockfalls were generated by material avalanching off the flanks of the dome; they traveled mainly down the volcano's eastern flank, and to a lesser extent down the NE flank. On 8 November observations from a helicopter revealed that a shallow, circular depression was located over the summit area of the dome, with ash vigorously venting from it. On several days a low-level plume, with small amounts of ash, drifted to the W or N. Cycles of weak and sporadic seismicity occurred, with periods of more intense seismicity characterized by increased rockfall activity and hybrid earthquakes. Mudflows occurred in the Belham Valley on the morning of 9 November during a period of heavy rainfall.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
On 11 November two emissions of steam-and-ash occurred and the clouds drifted to the W; at 1050 a cloud rose 1 km above the volcano, and at 1352 a cloud rose 3 km. The Alert Level remained at Yellow in the town of Baños and at Orange for the rest of the population in the high-risk zone, as it has since 5 September 2000.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.