Activity for the week of 18 February-24 February 2004
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
| Kyushu (Japan)
| 31.593°N, 130.657°E
| Elevation 1117 m
On 19 and 20 February, explosions at Sakura-jima produced ash clouds that rose to unknown heights. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.
Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 0.029°N, 77.986°W
| Elevation 5790 m
On 29 January a swarm of ~148 small volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred at Cayambe. By 1 February seismicity had decreased, reaching "normal" base levels. IG reported that the swarm may have represented an increase in the internal pressure of the volcano due to the arrival of fluid, possibly magma.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
| 19.514°N, 103.62°W
| Elevation 3850 m
According to the Washington VAAC, during 17-22 February there were several steam-and-ash emissions from Colima, with the highest rising plumes reaching ~6 km a.s.l.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Halmahera (Indonesia)
| 1.693°N, 127.894°E
| Elevation 1229 m
The Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-22 February thin ash plumes from Dukono were visible on satellite imagery, extending predominately E to a maximum distance of 90 km.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| 14.473°N, 90.88°W
| Elevation 3763 m
During 18-19 February, several moderate-to-strong explosions at Fuego produced ash plumes to 0.8-1.5 km above the crater. The explosions also produced landslides of incandescent volcanic material that traveled down several ravines: Seca (to the SW), Taniluyá (to the W), Trinidad, Ceniza, and sometimes towards Las Lajas-El Jute. Small amounts of fine ash were deposited to the W in the village of Sangre de Cristo. On 22 and 23 February explosions continued, sending plumes to 1.8 km above the crater. Ash fell in the communities of La Rochela, Ceilán, El Zapote, and Guadalupe.
Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Siglo XXI News, Prensa Libre
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
During 12-16 February, seismicity was above background levels at Karymsky. No seismic data were recorded during 17-18 February. Based on interpretations of seismic data, during 12-14 February five ash-and-gas explosions produced plumes that rose 4-4.5 km a.s.l., and on 15 February explosions produced two plumes to ~3 km a.s.l. Karymsky remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 19-23 February, lava mainly erupted from the S side of Kilauea's Pu`u `O`o crater. A large deflation event on 21 February during 0711 to 1413 amounted to 10.9 microradians of deformation. Weak background tremor continued at Kilauea's summit along with a few long-period earthquakes. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate levels.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.056°N, 160.642°E
| Elevation 4754 m
During 13-20 February seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with 135 earthquakes of M 1.25-1.7 and 1-6 earthquakes up to M 1.85 occurring daily at depths of 3-6 km beneath the volcano. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~1 km above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 34.094°N, 139.526°E
| Elevation 775 m
Relatively high amounts of gas discharge continued at Miyake-jima through 22 February. The sulfur-dioxide emission rate has been nearly constant (4,000-9,000 tons per day) since October 2002. Due to volcanic unrest, residents of the volcanic island have been evacuated since September 2000.
Source: Geological Survey of Japan
| 14.757°N, 91.552°W
| Elevation 3745 m
On 19 February moderate explosions continued at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Plumes rose 0.7-1 km above the volcano and mainly drifted SSW as fine ash fell in the mountainous region around the volcano. On 23 February avalanches of lava blocks and derived ash traveled SW down the lava dome.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
During 13-20 February, seismicity was slightly above background levels at Shiveluch. A large number of weak, shallow earthquakes was recorded daily at depths of 0-5 km beneath the active lava dome. Spasmodic tremor was recorded the entire week. Based on interpretations of seismic data, two ash-and-gas explosions on 12 February, and one on 16 February, produced ash plumes to ~4 km a.s.l. Visual and video observations revealed that two ash plume rose to ~5 km a.s.l. and drifted E on 12 February. Shiveluch remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
During 13-20 February, volcanic and seismic activity remained low at Soufrière Hills. The seismic network recorded one rockfall and three hybrid earthquakes. Sulfur-dioxide flux was at moderate levels, reaching between 350 and 650 metric tons per day.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
During 19-23 February, emissions of steam, gas, and ash continued at Tungurahua. On the afternoon of 19 February ash fell in the towns of Puela (~8 km SW of the volcano) and Pillate (~8 km W of the volcano). An explosion on 22 February at 2355 produced an avalanche of incandescent volcanic blocks that traveled ~1 km from the summit.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| United States
| 56.17°N, 159.38°W
| Elevation 2507 m
During the week of 15 February, AVO received several reports of small ash clouds rising "several hundred feet" above the intracaldera cinder-and-spatter cone of Veniaminof. Residents of Perryville reported a "black puff" of ash on 16 February followed by strong steaming, and a pilot reported a small black ash cloud on 19 February. Satellite imagery on 19 February at 1410 showed a small, dark trail on the snow leading away from the intracaldera cone that was likely a very localized ash deposit. No significant seismic activity or thermal anomalies on satellite data were recorded during the week. Due to the lack of significant seismic activity beneath the volcano, AVO concluded that these small ash clouds were the result of minor explosions caused by the heating of ground water below the intracaldera cone. Veniaminof remained at Concern Color Code Green.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.