Activity for the week of 28 February-6 March 2007
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Paramushir Island (Russia)
| 50.324°N, 155.461°E
| Elevation 1781 m
On 4 March, weak ash explosions from Chikurachki were reported by residents of Podgorny village (Paramushir Island), about 20 km SSE. On 5 March, observers reported a continuous ash column to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Nevado del Huila
| 2.93°N, 76.03°W
| Elevation 5364 m
The Washington VAAC reported that satellite imagery confirmed an eruption from Nevado del Huila on 19 February. The ash cloud rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Later the same day, a pilot reported an ash cloud to the same height and direction. During 2-3 March, INGEOMINAS reported that volcanic tremor was accompanied by gas-and-ash emissions that drifted NW. Fumaroles emitted from a N-S trending fissure.
Sources: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Aeolian Islands (Italy)
| 38.789°N, 15.213°E
| Elevation 924 m
INGV-CT reported that the eruption at Stromboli that started on 27 February continued during 7 March. Lava from a fissure on the NE flank of Crater 1 (the NE crater) flowed down the Sciara del Fuoco and formed two branches that reached the sea, resulting in steam plumes and a modified coastline. Explosive activity from the summit craters ceased when the lava flowed from the fissure, but gas puffing accompanied by small landslides inside the craters started again after 3 March.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
IG reported that noises produced by material rolling down the flanks of Tungurahua, roars, and "cannon shots" were heard during 28 February-6 March. Visual observations were limited due to cloud cover. Based on pilot reports, the Washington VAAC reported on 28 February that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. On 1 and 2 March, gas-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7-10 km (23,000-32,800 ft) a.s.l. and also drifted W. Incandescent material was ejected above the summit and rolled down the N and NW flanks. During 4-5 March, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 10-12 km (32,800-39,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. During 4-6 March, explosions rattled windows in Guadalupe, about 11 km N, and Baños, about 8 km N. Ashfall was reported from areas to the SW during the reporting period.
According to news articles, authorities conducted a voluntary evacuation of about 100 families on 5 March due to increased activity at Tungurahua.
Sources: Associated Press, Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Andaman Islands (India)
| 12.278°N, 93.858°E
| Elevation 354 m
Based on pilot reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume from Barren Island reached an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 3 March.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 28 February-6 March, lava from Kilauea continued to flow from lava deltas into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki, Kamokuna, and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Tremor at Kilauea's summit continued at low levels.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
| 4.271°S, 152.203°E
| Elevation 688 m
RVO reported that during 28 February-6 March, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted white vapor plumes containing a small amount of ash that rose to 1.2-1.7 km (3,900-5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE and E. Loud roaring noises occasionally accompanied emissions. During 3-6 March, multiple explosions occurred. Larger explosions produced shockwaves that rattled windows in Rabaul town and surrounding areas on 3 and 5 March. The flanks were showered with lava fragments. On 4 and 6 March, ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind during the reporting period.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
| 2.005°S, 78.341°W
| Elevation 5286 m
Based on information from the Guayaquil MWO and satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an eruption from Sangay on 28 February produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. On 2 March, a diffuse plume and a weak hotspot were seen on satellite imagery. On 5 March, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to between 5.2-6.1 km (17,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 14.757°N, 91.552°W
| Elevation 3745 m
Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted SW on 5 March. A diffuse plume and a hotspot were seen on satellite imagery on 6 March.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
During 28 February-2 March, lava-dome growth at Soufrière Hills continued and was concentrated on the E and N sides. Ash venting and roaring noises originated from the W side of the dome, above Gages Wall. On 2 March, two small pyroclastic flows traveled down Tyres Ghaut to the NW.
Based on satellite data and pilot reports the Washington VAAC reported continuous ash emissions during 28 February-4 March. Resultant plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly W. A thermal anomaly was detected in the crater on satellite imagery. On 6 March, an ash plume rose to altitudes between 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| United States
| 46.2°N, 122.18°W
| Elevation 2549 m
Data from deformation-monitoring instruments showed that during 28 February-6 March the lava dome at Mount St. Helens continued to grow. Crater views were mostly obscured by clouds.
Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)
| Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
| 29.638°N, 129.714°E
| Elevation 796 m
Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 2 March an eruption plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.
Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.