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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 4 November-10 November 2009.


















 Activity for the week of 4 November-10 November 2009

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Batur Bali (Indonesia) New
Galeras Colombia New
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) New
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) New
Nevado del Huila Colombia New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Reventador Ecuador New
San Vicente El Salvador New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Chaiten Chile Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Koryaksky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Batur  | Bali (Indonesia)  | 8.242°S, 115.375°E  | Elevation 1717 m

CVGHM reported increased seismicity from Batur from September to 7 November and a significant increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes on 8 November. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

INGEOMINAS reported that during 7-10 November seismic activity from Galeras decreased, although some seismic signals resembled patterns seen prior to previous eruptions. Sulfur dioxide emissions were not detected. The Alert Level remained at II (Orange; "probable eruption in term of days or weeks").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

According to news articles, a pyroclastic flow and a lahar descended the flanks of Karangetang on 4 November. Residents saw active lava flows the next day. On 11 November, incandescent material was ejected 5 m into the air.

Sources: Manado Post, Berita News



Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

PHIVOLCS reported that on 11 November an explosion from Mayon's summit crater ejected incandescent rock fragments that were seen from nearby areas. Cloud cover prevented observations of an ash plume, however field investigations after the event revealed ashfall to the SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). The 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank and the 6-km Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) in all other areas remained in effect.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Huila  | Colombia  | 2.93°N, 76.03°W  | Elevation 5364 m

INGEOMINAS reported that overflights of Nevado del Huila on 4, 6, and 10 November revealed a continued high rate of lava dome growth; the volume estimate for the new lava dome was nearly 25 million cubic meters. Small collapses occurred on the W part of the dome. Gas emissions were sometimes accompanied by pulsating ash emissions. Sulfur dioxide plumes rose 2.5 km above the lava dome and were seen in satellite imagery and the web camera drifting with the prevailing winds. The Alert Level remained at II (Orange; "probable eruption in term of days or weeks").

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that during 4-6 and 10 November thermal anomalies on the volcano were seen intermittently through cloud cover. On 7 November, Bogota MWO reported an ash plume at an altitude of 9.4 km (31,000 ft) a.s.l., and a plume was seen drifting ESE on satellite imagery. Later that day, an ash plume was seen on satellite imagery and on the web cameras drifting SE at an altitude below 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Piton de la Fournaise  | Reunion Island (France)  | 21.244°S, 55.708°E  | Elevation 2632 m

OVPDLF reported that on 5 November a vent inside the S part of Piton de la Fournaise's Dolomieu crater opened, following an intense seismic crisis. Within thirty minutes, a fissure on the upper SE flank propagated E and a second fissure opened on the E flank. Lava fountains 20 m high and 'a'a lava flows were emitted from both fissures. The Alert Level was raised to 2. Lava flows ceased by the morning of 6 November; the Alert level was lowered to 1 later that day.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 5 November an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Ash was not seen in satellite imagery, although meteorological clouds were present. IG reported that an ash plume rose 500 m above the crater on 7 November.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  San Vicente  | El Salvador  | 13.595°N, 88.837°W  | Elevation 2182 m

According to news articles, heavy rains caused landslides and flooding in the town of Verapaz, about 6 km NW of the summit of San Vicente, during 7-8 November. Mud and boulders swept down the flanks San Vicente, and in conjunction with flooded rivers, buried homes and cars; at least 144 people were killed and about 60 were missing.

Sources: Associated Press, Associated Press



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 4-10 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Pilots reported ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. on 5 November and to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. on 9 November. Plumes drifted E and N, respectively. According to a news article, Sakura-jima exploded for the 400 th time in 2009 on 5 November.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), The Japan Times



Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that Chaitén's lava-dome complex continued to grow during 16-30 October. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 November an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was above background levels during 29-31 October; data was not collected during 1-4 November due to technical reasons. Seismic signals possibly indicated that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. on 31 October and 5 November. Analyses of satellite imagery during 29 October-5 November revealed almost daily thermal anomalies and intermittent ash plumes that drifted 180 km E. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Based on information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions on 8 and 10 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 3-3.4 km (10,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 4-10 November, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and a second location, 700 m farther to the W. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows. Breakout lava flows were located inland of the Waikpuanaha entry and also W of the County Public Viewing trail. The last remaining structure on the flow field burned on 3 November. Incandescence was seen from the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and an East wall vent during 6-7 November.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW and likely produced some ashfall. Incandescence originated from a spattering lava pond inside the vent cavity. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 700 and 400 tonnes per day were measured on 6 and 9 November, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that during 30 October-6 November seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 300 m above the crater and fumarolic activity was occasionally noted. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Koryaksky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.321°N, 158.712°E  | Elevation 3430 m

KVERT reported that during 30 October-6 November seismic activity from Koryaksky did not exceed background levels. Fumarolic activity was noted on 29 October and during 4-5 November. The Level of Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 November an ash plume from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

On 6 November, INSIVUMEH reported that an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced a plume that rose 900 m and drifted SW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 8 November a small gas plume possibly containing ash drifted less than 10 km SSW. Another small plume was seen later that day.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 30 October-6 November seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels and possibly indicated that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.7 km (15,400 ft) a.s.l. Fumarolic activity was noted and analyses of satellite imagery revealed a large thermal anomaly over the lava dome. According to video camera data, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,400 ft) a.s.l. on 30 October. Ash plumes seen on satellite imagery drifted 130-255 km E on 30 October, and 1 and 5 November. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 30 October-6 November activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a high level; hybrid earthquakes were recorded for the first time since the renewal of activity in early October. Numerous pyroclastic flows occurred in most of the major drainage valleys. On 4 November, pyroclastic flows were seen from a helicopter traveling SW down Gingoes Ghaut to within 200 m of the sea. The frequency of pyroclastic flows increased on 5 November and particularly vigorous flows occurred in Tuitt's Ghaut to the NE. Ash fell in inhabited areas on a few occasions. Lahars descended the Belham Valley to the W several times. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Suwanose-jima during 4-5 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. An explosion was also reported on 6 November.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)