Activity for the week of 3 November-9 November 2010
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Luzon (Philippines)
| 12.769°N, 124.056°E
| Elevation 1535 m
PHIVOLCS reported an explosion-type earthquake at Bulusan on 6 November coincident with a steam-and-ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater at 0811. Trace amounts of ashfall were reported in multiple areas 6-10 km NW. The Alert Level was raised from 0 to 1 (out of 5), and PHIVOLCS reminded the public not to enter the permanent danger zone, defined as a 4-km radius around the volcano. White steam plumes were observed rising 200 m above the crater before 1400, when cloud cover prevented observations. On 7 November, PHIVOLCS noted that seismic activity had increased during the previous 24 hours. A phreatic explosion on 8 November was produced a brownish-to-light-gray plume that rose 700 m above the crater. Several neighborhoods to the NW, W, and WSW reported ashfall. Steam rose from the crater after the explosion. On 9 November two consecutive ash explosions, accompanied by rumbling sounds, produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted SW. Ashfall up to 2 mm thick was reported in areas to the SW and WNW.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
| 19.514°N, 103.62°W
| Elevation 3850 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 7 November an ash plume from Colima rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 19 km SW.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.056°N, 160.642°E
| Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that during 29 October-3 November seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was observed. Satellite imagery analyses showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 480 km SE. Vulcanian activity produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 31 October and 1-4 November. Seismicity sharply decreased on 4 November, and only gas-and-steam activity was observed. On 9 November, KVERT reported that the eruption that began in August 2009 had finished on 4 November and that seismicity had continued to decrease. The Aviation Color Code level was lowered to Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Central Java (Indonesia)
| 7.54°S, 110.446°E
| Elevation 2910 m
CVGHM reported that during 3-8 November the eruption from Merapi continued at a high level, characterized by incandescent avalanches from the lava dome, pyroclastic flows, ash plumes, and occasional explosions. Visual observations were often difficult due to inclement weather and gas-and-ash plumes from the eruption. On 7 November, a news article stated that since the eruption began on 26 October approximately156 people have died and more that 200,000 people have been displaced.
On 3 November observers stationed at multiple posts reported ash plumes from pyroclastic flows. One pyroclastic flow traveled 10 km, prompting CVGHM to extend the hazard zone to a 15-km-radius and recommend evacuations from several more communities. Another pyroclastic flow traveled 9 km SE later that day. The Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 18.3 km (60,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km W. Ground observers noted a significant eruption, but could not confirm the plume altitude. On 4 November an ash-and-gas plume rose to an altitude of 11 km (36,100 ft) a.s.l., and pyroclastic flows descended the NW, NNW, and N flanks as far as 3 km. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 10.7-11.9 km (35,000-39,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. On 5 November, rumbling sounds were heard in areas 30 km away. Pyroclastic flows continued to descend the flanks. Ash fell in Yogyakarta, 30 km SSW, and "sand"-sized tephra fell within 15 km. CVGHM recommended evacuations from several more towns within a 20-km radius.
Activity remained very intense on 6 November. Pyroclastic flows descended the flanks; one traveled 4 km W. Incandescent avalanches traveled 2 km down multiple drainages to the SSE, S, and SSW. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Flashes from the lava dome were reported from observations posts and incandescent material was ejected above the crater. A subsequent pyroclastic flow sent an ash plume to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. that drifted W, N, and E. Throughout the day, ashfall was heavy on Merapi's flanks, and was observed in surrounding areas including Selo (6 km NNW) and Magelang (26 km WNW). In Muntilan (18 km WSW) tephra and ash depths reached 4 cm. On 5 and 6 November, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes observed in satellite imagery rose to an altitude of 16.8 km (55,000 ft) a.s.l. News articles stated that three airlines cancelled flights to Jakarta due to the ash-induced aviation hazard.
On 7 November, the number of seismic signals indicating pyroclastic flows increased from the previous day. An explosion was heard and ash plumes rose 6 km and drifted W. Lightning was seen from Yogyakarta and ash fell within 10 km. Pyroclastic flows traveled 5 km and lava avalanches moved 600 m S and SW. High-altitude ash plumes drifted SW. According to the Darwin VAAC, during 7-8 November satellite imagery revealed ash plumes drifting 165-220 km W and SW at an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. On 8 November an SO2 cloud was seen over the Indian Ocean at altitudes of 12.2-15.2 km (40,000-50,000 ft) a.s.l. The airport in Yogyakarta closed. CVGHM reported that incandescent avalanches were sometimes seen through a closed-circuit television system. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.
On 9 November CVGHM noted a reduction in intensity of activity from Merapi; one pyroclastic flow occurred in a 6-hour period. Rumbling sounds were accompanied by an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and lava-dome incandescence. Ashfall was reported in Selo and lava avalanches traveled 800 m SSE.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), CNN, Daily Mail, Jakarta Globe
| Eastern Java (Indonesia)
| 8.108°S, 112.922°E
| Elevation 3657 m
On 4 November, CVGHM reported that from August to October seismic activity at Semeru had increased, and "smoke" and occasional gas plumes rose 400-500 m above the crater. During September incandescent avalanches traveled 400 m SE into the Besuk Kembar drainage on three occasions. Incandescence from the crater was observed in October. Incandescent avalanches traveled 600 m E into Besuk Kembar on 2 November and 4 km into the Besuk Kembar and Besuk Bang (SSE) drainages on 4 November. CVGHM noted that the lava dome in the Jonggring Saloko crater was growing. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity from Shiveluch was detected during 29 October-5 November and a thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed in satellite imagery. Seismic data on 31 October, and 1 and 4 November suggested that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed ash plumes drifting 400 km SE on 31 October and 1 November. Fumarolic activity was seen during 1-2 November. Cloud cover prevented observations the other days.
On 1 November, pyroclastic flow deposits from the large explosive eruption on 27 October were detected in satellite imagery on the ESE flank, and had traveled 15 km. Volcanologists inspected the deposits the next day and found that the pyroclastic flow had annihilated a forest in the Bekesh River valley. More than half of the lava dome edifice was destroyed during the eruption. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.
During 4-9 November, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from possible eruptions were observed in satellite imagery drifting N, SE, and S at altitudes of km (15,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Kyushu (Japan)
| 31.593°N, 130.657°E
| Elevation 1117 m
Based on information from JMA and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 3-5 and 7-9 November explosions from Sakura-jima produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-4.3 km (5,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, and SE.
Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 42.833°S, 72.646°W
| Elevation 1122 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and web camera footage, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 4 November and drifted 25 km NE. Cloud cover prevented clear satellite views of the volcano in subsequent images.
Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity from Karymsky was above background levels during 29 October-5 November. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 30 October-1 November. Cloud cover prevented observations the other days. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 3-9 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable between 150 and 160 m below the crater floor. Periodically the lava rose about 20 m above that level, producing nighttime incandescence seen from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby.
At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed some small lava flows on the coastal plain and the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. Some short-lived breakouts of lava occurred from the portion of the lava tube that crosses Highway 130, about 300 m SW of the current County Viewing Area. Incandescence was frequently visible from vents on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Mariana Islands (USA)
| 18.13°N, 145.8°E
| Elevation 570 m
Low-level gas-and-steam plumes from Pagan were observed in satellite imagery during 1-4 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Pagan is not monitored with ground-based geophysical instrumentation; the only source of information is satellite observation and occasional reports from observers who visit the island.
Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program
| 0.077°S, 77.656°W
| Elevation 3562 m
Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 2 November an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Cloud cover prevented clear satellite observations of the volcano.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
MVO reported that during 29 October-5 November activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. The largest pyroclastic flow occurred on 5 November and traveled 1.5 km W down Gages valley. The Hazard Level remained at 3.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
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