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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 20 February-26 February 2013.


















 Activity for the week of 20 February-26 February 2013

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Karkar Papua New Guinea New
Sabancaya Peru New
Sangay Ecuador New
Soufriere Hills Montserrat New
Tangkuban Parahu Western Java (Indonesia) New
Whakaari/White Island North Island (New Zealand) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Tolbachik Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that during 20-26 February clouds obscured satellite views of Cleveland's lava dome. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3320 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported two episodes of lava fountaining from Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 20 February. The first episode's most energetic phase occurred during 0150-0235, producing an ash plume that drifted ESE, small lahars, lava flows from the fissure cutting the SE crater rim, and lava flows from a new eruptive fissure which opened on the lower SW flank of the cone. After the cessation of lava fountaining, weak spattering and low-rate lava emission continued from two small fissures at the SE base of the cone. During the late morning, eruptive activity at NSEC re-intensified. The second episode began just after 1415 and ended at about 1450. An ash cloud drifted E, and new lava flows traveled towards the Valle del Bove, following the paths of previous flows. Slow-moving lava flows from the fissures at the SE base of the NSEC continued into the next day, accompanied by sporadic, weak Strombolian explosions at the NSEC.

At 0233 on 21 February a new vent opened high on the W slope of the Valle del Bove and produced a lava flow that melted snow, creating lahars and voluminous steam plumes. At about 0300 Strombolian activity resumed at the NSEC; the activity became virtually continuous by 0440 and produced jets of incandescent lava that rose at most 100 m above the crater rim. Cloud cover periodically prevented observations, but at 0540 the clouds were illuminated, and at 0545 a lava flow emerged from the cloud cover. An ash plume drifted N, causing ashfall in the area between Randazzo (15 km NNE) and Linguaglossa (7 km NE), at Patti on the Tyrrhenian (N coast of Sicily), and as far as Lipari (more than 80 km N). Scoria clasts up to 15 cm in diameter also fell in Linguaglossa. After the cessation of this fourth paroxysm in just over two days, effusive activity continued from the eruptive vents, feeding two lava flows that traveled 2.5 km down to the base of the steep W slope of the Valle del Bove. This activity, accompanied by sporadic small Strombolian explosions at the NSEC, continued into the morning of 22 February.

At about 0700 on 22 February, rising tremor amplitude signaled the onset of a new episode, but from Bocca Nuova. Between 0730 and 0815 many vapor puffs and thermal anomalies were observed. Cloud cover prevented clear views, but mild Strombolian activity was likely occurring within the crater. At about 0815 the volcanic tremor amplitude started decreasing and the gas emissions from Bocca Nuova became less conspicuous. Contemporaneously, the emission of lava from the two effusive vents at the SE base of the NSEC cone and below the Belvedere station decreased and completely ceased during the afternoon of 22 February.

At about 1625 on 23 February thermal anomalies were detected from NSEC and 15 minutes later lava was visible from the vent at the SE base of the NSEC cone. By nightfall the lava flow and Strombolian activity were visible from populated areas on the S and E flanks, although cloud cover hampered views. Activity intensified during 1900-1930; lava fountains rose at most 150 m above the crater rim and a well-fed lava flow spilled through the breach in the SE crater rim and traveled toward the W slope of the Valle del Bove. Within the next 10 minutes jets of lava rose 500-800 m above the rim. During that time, the emission of pyroclastic material increased dramatically, forming a dense plume that drifted NE; the entire NE flank, from the NSEC to Pizzi Deneri and beyond, was covered with a sheet of incandescent material. Eyewitnesses also reported the fall of large clasts, some incandescent, in the area of Monte Baracca, ~5 km NE of the NSEC. High lava fountaining continued for about 35 minutes. At 2014 the height of the lava fountains rapidly decreased, and two minutes later, the activity had changed to Strombolian explosions that ejected incandescent tephra up to 100 m above the crater rim. At 2030 all explosive activity was essentially over. During the morning of 24 February, the lava flow emitted from NSEC continued to be fed, probably by one or more vents near Belvedere.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Karkar  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.649°S, 145.964°E  | Elevation 1839 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 February an ash plume from Karkar rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

According to news articles, INGEMMET recorded 536 earthquakes from Sabancaya, or about 20 per hour, during 22-23 February. About 80 homes were damaged by the earthquakes, causing some evacuations. A plume rose 100 m; plumes had been intermittently visible since 15 January.

Source: Reuters



Volcano index photo  Sangay  | Ecuador  | 2.005°S, 78.341°W  | Elevation 5286 m

According to the Washington VAAC, on 22 February a pilot observed an ash plume from Sangay that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Due to cloud cover in the area, neither satellite image analysis nor the Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG) could confirm an ash emission. Ash plumes were not detected in cloudy satellite image views during 23-24 February, but a thermal anomaly was detected on 24 February.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 15-22 February activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level and sulfur dioxide gas flux returned to baseline levels, similar to the levels measured before the activity that occurred between 3 and 6 February. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Tangkuban Parahu  | Western Java (Indonesia)  | 6.77°S, 107.6°E  | Elevation 2084 m

CVGHM reported that on 21 February tremor increased at Tangkubanparahu and diffuse ash emissions rose from Ratu Crater. Based on the seismicity, visual observations, and temperature increases of the land around the crater, the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and visitors were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Whakaari/White Island  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 37.52°S, 177.18°E  | Elevation 294 m

GeoNet Data Centre reported that ash venting from White island occurred at about 1130 and 1330 on 23 February. The Aviation Colour Code was raised to Orange and the Volcanic Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-5). During a field investigation on 25 February scientists observed that ash emissions had ceased and small scale steam-and-gas explosions were occurring at the active vent. Volcanic tremor had also increased.

Source: GeoNet



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that 13 explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 18-22 February, and ejected tephra fell at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was clearly detected at night.

Based on information from JMA, explosions from Showa Crater during 20-26 February generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. According to the Tokyo VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume that drifted ENE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. on 25 February.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly and weak steam-and-gas emissions from Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, were detected in satellite images during 19 and 22-23 February; cloud cover prevented observations of the volcano on other days during 18-25 February. The Aviation Color Code was Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Karymsky was detected during 15-22 February. Possible ash explosions during 14, 16, and 19-20 February produced ash plumes that rose 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly on the volcano during 14 and 18-20 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 20-26 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 35 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 20 February.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively and informally called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and continued to advance NE and SW over older flows. Lava flows were active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o) and in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. To the W, a 350-m-wide lava flow advanced towards the coast and produced scattered breakouts. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. A few small bench collapses may have occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 15-22 February moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing summit incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 19-26 February seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions sometimes containing ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. On 19 February an ash plume rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted E. The next day gas-and-steam emissions rose 800 m above the rim and a diffuse bluish plume rose 1 km. On 21 February a gas-and-ash plume rose 800 m, and on 22 February a gas-and-ash plume rose 1.5 km. Multiple ash plumes that drifted NE were observed on 23 February. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 February an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced an ash plume that rose 600 m and caused ashfall in the region of Palajunoj, on the SW flank, and in La Florida (5 km S). Steam plumes rose 200 m and drifted SW, and avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled NE. On 22 February an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 800 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in Monte Claro (S). Avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled SE. A change in the wind direction on 23 February blew ash plumes N, generated ashfall in Quetzaltenango (18 km WNW). Explosions during 24-25 February generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted E. Avalanches descended the S and SE flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 15-22 February a viscous lava flow effused on the E flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tolbachik  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.832°N, 160.326°E  | Elevation 3611 m

KVERT reported that the S fissure along the W side of Tolbachinsky Dol, a lava plateau on the SW side of Tolbachik, continued to produce very fluid lava flows during 15-22 February that traveled to the W, S, and SE sides of the plateau. Four cinder cones continued to grow on the S fissure above Krasny cone. Gas-and-ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A very large thermal anomaly on the N part of Tolbachinsky Dol was visible daily in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



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Agung Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Papandayan Sotara
Ahyi Concepcion Ibu Lewotolo Parker Soufriere Hills
Aira Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Akan Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague South Sarigan Seamount
Alaid Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo Spurr
Alu-Dalafilla Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa St. Helens
Ambae Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Stromboli
Ambang Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sulu Range
Ambrym Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sumbing
Anatahan Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Sundoro
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suretamatai
Antuco Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Suwanosejima
Apoyeque Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Taal
Arenal Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Tair, Jebel at
Asamayama Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Takawangha
Askja Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Talang
Asosan Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tambora
Augustine Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tanaga
Avachinsky Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tandikat-Singgalang
Awu Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkoko-Duasudara
Axial Seamount Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tangkuban Parahu
Azul, Cerro Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Tara, Batu
Azumayama Fogo Kavachi Merapi Ruang Telica
Bagana Fonualei Kelimutu Midagahara Ruapehu Tenerife
Balbi Fournaise, Piton de la Kelut Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Bamus Fourpeaked Kerinci Miyakejima Sabancaya Three Sisters
Banda Api Fuego Ketoi Momotombo Sakar Tinakula
Bardarbunga Fujisan Kharimkotan Monowai Salak Tofua
Barren Island Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Montagu Island San Cristobal Tokachidake
Batur Galeras Kikai Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Tolbachik
Bezymianny Galunggung Kilauea Mutnovsky San Vicente Toliman
Bogoslof Gamalama Kirishimayama Myojinsho Sangay Tongariro
Brava Gamkonora Kizimen Nabro Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Turrialba
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ubinas
Calbuco Great Sitkin Korovin Nightingale Island Sarigan Ulawun
Callaqui Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Unnamed
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Cayambe Guntur Kuchinoerabujima NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Cereme Hachijojima Kurikomayama Nyamuragira Seulawah Agam West Mata
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Nyiragongo Sheveluch Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Okataina Shishaldin Witori
Chiginagak Hekla Lamington Okmok Simbo Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Ontakesan Sinabung Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Oraefajokull Sinarka Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Osorno Siple Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Pacaya Sirung Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Pagan Slamet Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Paluweh Soputan
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Panarea Sorikmarapi
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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)