Activity for the week of 23 November-29 November 2016
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Kuril Islands (Russia)
| 48.98°N, 153.48°E
| Elevation 724 m
SVERT reported that on 29 November an ash plume rose from Chirinkotan was visible in satellite images rising to an altitude of 8.8 km (29,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 39 km N. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow (on a four-color scale).
Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)
| Central Chile-Argentina border
| 37.856°S, 71.183°W
| Elevation 2953 m
Based on satellite and webcam images, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 23-25 and 27-29 November diffuse steam-and-ash plumes rose from Copahue to altitudes of 3.3-5.2 km (11,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, SE, and N. The Alert Level remained at Yellow; SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 1.5 km of the crater.
Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)
| North Island (New Zealand)
| 38.08°S, 176.27°E
| Elevation 757 m
GeoNet reported a small hydrothermal eruption in Lake Rotorua on 28 November, and noted that the occurrence was not unusual. In a news article residents described a geyser that rose 20-30 m above the lake surface. A GNS scientists noted that the last significant steam eruptions in Rotorua occurred about 15 years ago.
Sources: GeoNet, NZ Herald
| 15.787°S, 71.857°W
| Elevation 5960 m
The Technical and Scientific Committee for volcanic risk management of the Arequipa region (comprised of five groups including IGP's OVS and INGEMMET's OVI) reported 288 explosions at Sabancaya during 21-27 November. Ash plumes rose as high as 4.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 35-40 km E and SE. Sulfur dioxide emissions were as high as 3,300 tonnes/day and deformation was detected on the SE flank. During 28-29 November ash plumes rose 2 km and drifted 30 km S and SE. The Alert level remained at Yellow; the public was warned to stay at least 10 km away from the volcano.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP), Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)
| 19.514°N, 103.62°W
| Elevation 3850 m
Based on satellite, webcam, and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 November an ash plume from Colima rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km W. The next day a gas plume with possible ash content rose to an altitude of 5.5 (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 20 km N. On 28 November an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 13 km NE.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Halmahera (Indonesia)
| 1.693°N, 127.894°E
| Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, information from PVMBG, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-29 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 21-29 November HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; the lake level rose as high as 6.5 m below the Halema’uma’u floor. A section of the wall of the Overlook Vent collapsed into the lava lake on 28 November. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna at the easternmost lava delta. Breakouts at the upper part of the lava-tube system began on 21 November, sending lava as far as 500 m S and E. These breakouts, and others inland from the ocean entry, continued to be active through 29 November.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.056°N, 160.642°E
| Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that a daily thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images during 18-25 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
Each day during 22-28 November CENAPRED reported 129-324 steam and gas emissions from Popocatépetl that sometimes contained ash. Volcano-tectonic events were detected during 22-24 November, and explosions occurred on 22 and 24 November (4 and 7 events, respectively). At 0945 on 25 November an explosion generated a plume that rose 5 km above the crater rim and drifted SE and NE. Seismicity decreased after the event. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including in the municipalities of Atlixco, Tochimilco, and San Pedro Benito Juárez. During 28-29 November there were 48 detected emissions. Beginning at 0559 emissions of water vapor, gas, and ash became constant, rising as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifting NE. Incandescent fragments were ejected 300-800 m form the crater, mainly onto the NE flank. Ash fell in Atlixco, Chiautzingo, Domingo Arenas, Huejotzingo, Juan C. Bonilla, San Andrés Calpan, and San Martín Texmelucan (Puebla state), and in San Miguel (Tlaxcala state). The phase of continuous emissions and ejected material ended at 1630 on 30 November. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 18-25 November lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions with ash plumes as high as 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l., and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. Satellite and video data recorded ash plumes rising to altitudes of 6-6.5 km (19,700-21,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km SW, E, and NE on 18, 20, 22, and 24 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
| 29.638°N, 129.714°E
| Elevation 796 m
Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions on 23, 25, and 29 November. Ash plumes on 25 and 29 November rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SW. On 29 November a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.
Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.