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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 21 December-27 December 2022
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Etna Italy 2022 Nov 27 New
Kaitoku Seamount Japan New
Ahyi United States Continuing
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Alaid Russia Continuing
Cotopaxi Ecuador Continuing
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Klyuchevskoy Russia Continuing
Manam Papua New Guinea 2014 Jun 29 Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Italy 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Villarrica Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,115 individual reports over 1,220 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 333 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suwanosejima
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Taal
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Takawangha
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Talang
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Tambora
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tanaga
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tara, Batu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Ta'u
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Taupo
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Telica
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Tenerife
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tengger Caldera
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Tinakula
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tofua
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tokachidake
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tolbachik
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Toliman
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Tongariro
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Trident
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Turrialba
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Ubinas
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin Westdahl
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Witori
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Wolf
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wrangell
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zhupanovsky
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Etna
INGV reported that the vents at the NE base of Etna’s SE Crater, in the Valle del Leone at about 2,800 m elevation, continued to feed lava flows during 19-25 December. The active flow field consisted of overlapping lava flows that expanded into the Valle del Leone and the Valle del Bove. By 25 December the most active lava flow had descended to 2,150 m elevation. Gas emissions rose from the summit craters.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Kaitoku Seamount
After JMA first reported new activity around the Kaitoku Seamount in August, discolored water continued to be periodically visible in Sentinel satellite images through 27 December. Though weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the vent area, and on occasion no activity was visible in clear images, plumes of discolored water drifting away from the vent area appeared to become more frequent in October. Images from 18 October, and 22 and 27 November possibly captured material at the surface or an eruption plume rising above the water. The Japan Coast Guard posted pictures of disturbed water around the vent in November. Recent Sentinel images on 17 and 27 December captured plumes of discolored water drifting as far as 10 km from the vent area.
Sources: Sentinel Hub, Japan Coast Guard
Report for Ahyi
Unrest continued to be detected at Ahyi Seamount during 21-27 December. Wake Island hydrophone sensors detected daily signals that possibly indicated explosions. An underwater plume was visible in satellite images during 26-27 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 19-26 December. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions were slightly high at 1,500 tons per day on 19 December. An explosion at 0449 on 22 December ejected blocks 600-900 m from the vent. An explosion at 1954 on 24 December produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks as far as 1.1 km from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Alaid
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Alaid was identified in satellite images on 17 and 22 December; weather clouds obscured observations on the other days during 16-21 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Cotopaxi
On 23 December IG issued a special report about increased activity at Cotopaxi. A total of 27 ash emissions had been recorded since the eruption began on 21 October; one ash emission was recorded in October, four were recorded in November, and 22 were recorded by 23 December. Based on Washington VAAC notices, ash clouds drifted the farthest, 60 km NNW, on 26 November and 20 December after rising 2.2 km (the maximum recorded height) and 1.5 km above the crater rim, respectively. Ashfall on those two days was reported in the Mejía, Rumiñahui, and Quito regions. Ash samples from 21 October and 26 November revealed a slight increase in the total percentage of juvenile material; an analysis of 20 December ash was in progress. Increases in sulfur dioxide emissions were measured both by satellite and ground-based Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments. Gas measurements taken during periodic overflights showed increases in the ratio of sulfur dioxide to hydrogen sulfide. Based on these and other monitoring data, IG reiterated that the activity was caused by magma in the volcano’s conduit, though not from new magma entering the system after the 2015 eruption.

Daily emissions with ash continued to be observed in webcam images and reported by the Washington VAAC during 23-27 December; weather clouds obscured views on 26 December. Gas-and-steam plumes with low ash content rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted in various directions. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that almost daily white-and-gray plumes of variable densities rose from Dukono as high as 400 m above the summit and drifted N and E during 23-27 December. Inclement weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 15-22 December. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions on 18 December generated ash plumes that rose to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images that same day; the volcano was obscured by weather clouds on the other days of the week. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that satellite data acquired on 22 December confirmed that the lava flow field at Great Sitkin was advancing E. Slow lava effusion likely continued during 23-27 December, though nothing significant was visible in sometimes cloudy satellite images or detected in seismic data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 21-23 and 25-27 December. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
On 22 December KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code for Klyuchevskoy to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale), noting that the eruption had ended in November and the thermal anomaly that had been identified in satellite images had returned to background levels. Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Manam
The Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 December an ash plume from Manam rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SSE based on satellite images.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 16-22 December and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced three lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.5 km down the SW flank (upstream in the Kali Bebeng drainage). Sounds of falling material were noted four times. No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Reventador
IG described the ongoing eruption at Reventador as moderate during 21-27 December. Daily seismicity was characterized by explosions, long-period earthquakes, periods of harmonic tremor, and signals that indicated emissions. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, observed daily with webcams or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1.3 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. Weather clouds occasionally prevented webcam and satellite views of the volcano. Crater incandescence was visible nightly or during the early morning hours; incandescent blocks rolled down all flanks, descending as far as 700 m.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN)
Report for Sangay
IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 20-27 December, which included daily explosions, volcanic tremor, and gas, steam, and ash emissions. The daily count of explosions ranged from 708-1,250, though seismic data transmission was sometimes interrupted. Almost daily ash-and-gas plumes were identified in IG webcam images and satellite images according to the Washington VAAC; weather clouds sometimes prevented observations of the summit. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the volcano and drifted mainly NW, W, SW, and S. Multiple daily thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images. Crater incandescence was visible some nights and early mornings. Incandescent material was observed rolling down the SE flank during 26-27 December.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch during 15-22 December was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, lava-dome extrusion, and strong fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images, and ash plumes were visible drifting 110 km NNE on 16 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that both explosive and effusive activity at Stromboli were observed during 19-25 December at four vents in Area N, one N1 vent and three N2 vents; all were located in the upper portion of the Sciara del Fuoco. Explosions from the vents were variable in intensity and ejected coarse material (bombs and lapilli) 80-150 m high at a rate of 3-10 explosions per hour. Intense spattering from all four vents occurred during the week. Lava flows reached about halfway down the Sciara del Fuoco.

At 0942 on 19 December lava overflowed vents in the N2 area, after a period of intense spattering. The lava flowed part way down the Sciara del Fuoco, likely channeled in the ravine that had formed in October, out of view from webcams. The flow was well-fed for a couple of hours but then effusion slowed or stopped, and it began to cool. The same activity occurred again, with a lava overflow occurring at 1547 on 21 December and traveling about the same distance. On 22 December explosive activity at the Central-South area (CS) ejected fine-to-coarse material as high as 150 m above the vent.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 19-26 December. No explosions were recorded. Eruption plumes rose at least 1 km above the crater rim and disappeared into weather clouds, and blocks were ejected as far as 30 m from the vent. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW) during 23-26 December. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Villarrica
SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 0845 on 24 December a volcano-tectonic earthquake at Villarrica was followed by increased Strombolian activity. Explosions ejected material generally to heights of less than 100 m, though one explosion ejected incandescent tephra as far as 400 m onto the SW flank. According to POVI, there were 11 ejections of incandescent ballistics that impacted the upper SW flank between 2225 on 25 December to 0519 on 26 December. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned that material could be ejected within 500 m of the crater. ONEMI maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI)