Report on Asosan (Japan) — February 1991
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 16, no. 2 (February 1991)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Asosan (Japan) Tremor amplitude and steam emission decline
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1991. Report on Asosan (Japan) (McClelland, L., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 16:2. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199102-282110.
32.884°N, 131.104°E; summit elev. 1592 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Crater 1 weakly emitted ash on 5, 8, and 9 February, and steadily emitted steam to 100-200 m heights on other days, a decline from previous months. The highest steam emission of the month reached 300 m above the crater on the 7th. Continuous tremor amplitude, which had been high since October, has declined since the end of January. Activity continued at similar levels through early March.
Geologic Background. The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. The summit crater of Nakadake is accessible by toll road and cable car, and is one of Kyushu's most popular tourist destinations.
Information Contacts: JMA.