Report on Semeru (Indonesia) — 22 March-28 March 2023
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 22 March-28 March 2023
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2023. Report on Semeru (Indonesia) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 22 March-28 March 2023. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 22-28 March, with daily emissions of dense ash plumes. At 0605 and 0810 on 23 March gray and white-to-gray ash plumes rose 800 m above the summit and drifted NW and SW. At 0548 on 24 March a white-to-gray ash plume rose 1 km and drifted S. On 25 March at 0600 a white-to-gray ash plume rose 500 m and drifted S and SW, at 0705 a gray ash plume rose 700 m and drifted SE and S, and at 0738 a gray-to-brown ash plume rose 1.2 km and drifted SE. At 0619 and 0659 on 26 March dense white-to-gray ash plumes rose 1 km and drifted SE. At 0756 on 27 March a white-to-gray ash plume rose 800 m and drifted S. At 0130 on 28 March a dense gray ash plume drifted NE and at 0759 a somewhat dense white-to-gray plume rose 800 m and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 100 m away from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Geological Summary. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.