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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 22 March-28 March 2023
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Asamayama Honshu (Japan) New
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) 2016 Dec 5 New
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New
Ahyi Mariana Islands (USA) 2024 Jan 1 Continuing
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) Continuing
Cotopaxi Ecuador Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Fuego South-Central Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Karangetang Sangihe Islands 2018 Nov 25 Continuing
Krakatau Sunda Strait Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Santa Maria Southwestern Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Villarrica Central Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 19,996 individual reports over 1,215 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 332 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ahyi Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Aira Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Akan Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suwanosejima
Alaid Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Taal
Alu-Dalafilla Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambae Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Takawangha
Ambang Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Talang
Ambrym East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Tambora
Anatahan Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tanaga
Aniakchak Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Antuco Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tara, Batu
Arenal Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Ta'u
Asamayama Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Taupo
Askja Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Telica
Asosan Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Tenerife
Atka Volcanic Complex Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tengger Caldera
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Avachinsky Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Tinakula
Awu Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tofua
Axial Seamount Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tokachidake
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tolbachik
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Toliman
Bagana Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Tongariro
Balbi Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Trident
Bamus Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Turrialba
Bardarbunga Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Ubinas
Barren Island Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ugashik-Peulik
Batur Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Bulusan Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Calbuco Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Cameroon Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin Westdahl
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Witori
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Wolf
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wrangell
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zhupanovsky
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Asamayama
JMA reported that inflation on Asamayama’s W flank began to be detected on 15 March, and the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes increased on 21 March. On 22 March JMA raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) and warned the public that very small eruptions may impact areas within 500 m of the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Bezymianny
KVERT reported that at 1825 on 29 March an ash plume from Bezymianny rose as high as 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Ulawun
RVO reported a short eruption at Ulawun, during 0408-0425 on 28 March, based on seismic data. A local volcano observer reported minor ashfall in areas to the NW including Ubili village, and the Ulamona Mission, Saltamana, and Ibana Village Oil Palm areas. According to the Darwin VAAC at 0600 an ash plume was visible in a satellite image drifting W at 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l.; the plume had dissipated by 1000.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
Report for Ahyi
Unrest at Ahyi Seamount continued during 21-28 March. A plume of discolored water was observed in high-resolution satellite images acquired on 21 and 22 March. No observations indicated that activity has breached the ocean surface. One possible underwater explosion was detected by pressure sensors on Wake Island, 2,270 km E, during 26-27 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 20-27 March, with crater incandescence visible nightly. Two explosions recorded on 21 and 22 March produced ash plumes that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 1-1.3 km from the vent. Two eruptive events during 24-27 March produced volcanic plumes that rose 1.1 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Asosan
The amplitude of volcanic tremor signals at Asosan increased in December 2022, and then further intensified on 30 January, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) and warn the public to stay at least 1 km away from the crater. The amplitude fluctuated at high levels for a few weeks, and then decreased on 19 February and again on 14 March. Daily sulfur dioxide emissions had exceeded 1,000 tons per day starting in December 2022; emissions declined to below that threshold by mid-January and remained at lower levels. At 1100 on 23 March the Alert Level was lowered to 1.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Cotopaxi
IG reported that eruptive activity at Cotopaxi was ongoing during 22-28 March. Gas-and-steam emissions were visible during 21-24 March rising as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifting E; weather clouds prevented views of the volcano on 23 March. Ash emissions rose 500-800 m above the crater rim and drifted SW and SE during 25-26 March. Ash plumes rose 1.1 km above the crater rim and rifted SE, NE, and NW on 27 March. Ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim on 28 March and drifted NW, causing minor ashfall in the Machachi parish on the N flank, in Parque Nacional Cotopaxi. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 16-23 March. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions during 18 and 21-22 March generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.8 km (9,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E. Ash plumes were identified in satellite images drifting 76 km E during 22-23 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that 4-10 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 22-28 March generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted at least 25 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported almost daily in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Asunción, Aldeas, and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Ashfall was not confirmed during 23-24 March Explosions ejected incandescent material up to 200 m above the crater. Daily block avalanches descended the flanks in various directions towards the Ceniza (SSW), Santa Teresa, Seca (W), Taniluya (SW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), Honda (E), and El Jute (ESE) ravines, sometimes reaching vegetated areas. Shockwaves caused structures to shake in communities around the volcano.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that a 23 March satellite image confirmed that lava continued to slowly erupt at the summit of Great Sitkin, producing a thick lava flow. The flow advanced to the E and likely continued to be fed through 28 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Karangetang
Webcam images of Karangetang posted in PVMBG daily reports during 23-28 March showed incandescent material at the summit Main Crater (S crater) and on the flanks. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public were advised to stay 2.5 km away from Main Crater with an extension to 3.5 km on the S and SE flanks.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Krakatau
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Anak Krakatau continued during 22-29 March and multiple ash plumes were visible rising from the vent during 28-29 March. Ash plumes recorded at 0412, 0743, 1221, 1513, and 1935 on 28 March were dense and dark gray and rose as high has 2.5 km above the summit. The ash plumes drifted NE and W. Webcam images captured incandescent material being ejected above the vent at 0415 and around the summit area at 2003. At 0041 on 29 March a dense dark ash plume rose 600 m and drifted W. A webcam image from 0047 showed incandescent material at the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok was ongoing during 22-28 March. Daily ash plumes, sometimes dense, were visible rising as high as 800 m above the summit and drifting mainly W and NW. VONAs issued on most days described dense gray or gray-to-white ash plumes at 0517, 1623, and 2016 on 22 March, at 1744 on 24 March, at 0103 on 26 March, at 0845 and 1604 on 27 March, and at 0538 on 28 March. A webcam image at 2220 on 22 March showed incandescent material around the summit area and being ejected above the summit. Another webcam images at 0103 on 26 March captured a Strombolian explosion at the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 17-23 March and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced 160 lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.8 km down the SW flank (upstream in the Bebeng and Boyong drainages). Two pyroclastic flows traveled 1.3 km down the SW flank, upstream of the Bebeng/Krasak drainage. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome were evident in webcam images due to continuing collapses of material, though the volume remained unchanged at 1,686,200 cubic meters. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that the Santa Maria-Santiaguito lava dome complex remained highly active during 22-28 March. On most days steady degassing from the dome produced gas plumes that drifted S and SW. Incandescence from the dome and along lava flow margins was visible most nights or early mornings. The lava flow that extended 4.3 km down the SW flank in the San Isidro and Zanjón Seco drainages was active. Activity from the lava dome included explosions and avalanches, and small pyroclastic flows during 22-23 March. Daily weak to moderate explosions generated ash plumes up to 1 km above the crater that drifted SW and W, and avalanches traveled down multiple flanks.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 22-28 March, with daily emissions of dense ash plumes. At 0605 and 0810 on 23 March gray and white-to-gray ash plumes rose 800 m above the summit and drifted NW and SW. At 0548 on 24 March a white-to-gray ash plume rose 1 km and drifted S. On 25 March at 0600 a white-to-gray ash plume rose 500 m and drifted S and SW, at 0705 a gray ash plume rose 700 m and drifted SE and S, and at 0738 a gray-to-brown ash plume rose 1.2 km and drifted SE. At 0619 and 0659 on 26 March dense white-to-gray ash plumes rose 1 km and drifted SE. At 0756 on 27 March a white-to-gray ash plume rose 800 m and drifted S. At 0130 on 28 March a dense gray ash plume drifted NE and at 0759 a somewhat dense white-to-gray plume rose 800 m and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 100 m away from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that low-level unrest continued at Semisopochnoi during 22-28 March. Steam emissions from the N crater of Mount Young were visible during 22 and 26-27 March. No explosive activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, lava-dome extrusion, and strong fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 16-23 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that both explosive and effusive activity at Stromboli occurred during 20-26 March, though inclement weather conditions prevented views on most days. Activity was centered at three vents in Area N within the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, and from four vents in Area C-S (South-Central Crater) on the crater terrace. Explosions at two vents in the N1 crater and one vent in the N2 crater in Area N were low to medium intensity and ejected coarse material (bombs and lapilli) 80-150 m at a rate of 6-12 explosions per hour. Explosive activity at three active vents at the S2 sector in Area C-S ejected coarse material generally as high as 150 m above the vent at a rate of 5-7 explosions per hour; material was ejected as high as 300 m on 23 March. Sector C was characterized by occasional low-intensity explosive activity through the week and intense spattering on 22 March. No activity was recorded at sector S1. A strong explosion at 1549 on 25 March at Area C-S and was followed by two minor explosions; the sequence lasted about three minutes.

A lava overflow event at one of the N1 vents began at 2242 on 23 March and was preceded by spattering activity in Area N. After about an hour lava flowed along the Sciara del Fuoco in the ravine that had formed in October 2022. The flow rate notably increased during 0200-0400 on 26 March and caused avalanches of material from collapses at the advancing flow front. By that afternoon the flow was cooling down and no longer being fed. It was unknown due to weather conditions if material reached the coastline.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 20-27 March. Eruptive activity including three explosions sent ash plumes as high as 2 km above the rim and ejecting large blocks as far as 300 m from the vent. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. Occasional ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and residents were warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Villarrica
The eruption at Villarrica was ongoing during 21-28 March. POVI reported that on 21 March Strombolian explosions ejected material 100 m above the crater rim. SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 0551 on 24 March a long-period earthquake was associated with low-intensity crater incandescence. According to POVI a cone with a vent that was about 13 m in diameter had formed on the crater floor and was visible during a recent overflight. Sometimes lava fountains rose over 100 m. At 2249 on 26 March Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent material more than 110 m above the crater rim. The Volcanic Alert level remained at Yellow (the second highest on a four-level scale) according to SERNAGEOMIN. SENAPRED maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and Panguipulli, and SINAPRED maintained an exclusion zone of 1 km from the crater.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI), Sistema y Servicio Nacional de Prevención y Repuesta Ante Desastres (SENAPRED)