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Gede-Pangrango

Photo of this volcano
  • Country
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  •  
  • 6.786°S
  • 106.983°E

  • 3026 m
    9928 ft

  • 263060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Bulletin Report: June 1991 (BGVN 16:06) Citation IconCite this Report

Seismicity declines without eruption after April/May swarm

High seismicity associated with the 29 April-1 May swarm activity has continuously declined since late May (figure 1). An average of one volcanic earthquake/day was recorded in June, compared to 43/day in April and 5/day in May. No surface activity was observed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Daily number of earthquakes at Gede, April-May 1991. Courtesy of VSI.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Gede-Pangrango.

Bulletin Reports - Index

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

04/1991 (BGVN 16:04) Earthquake swarm

05/1991 (BGVN 16:05) Brief earthquake swarm

06/1991 (BGVN 16:06) Seismicity declines without eruption after April/May swarm




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


April 1991 (BGVN 16:04) Citation IconCite this Report

Earthquake swarm

A swarm of 100 volcanic earthquakes (40 deep and 60 shallow) was recorded on 29 April, an increase from the previous daily average of 10-15 events. Tectonic earthquakes averaged 1-2/day. Seismicity had been increasing since February. No surface activity was observed.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


May 1991 (BGVN 16:05) Citation IconCite this Report

Brief earthquake swarm

Three shocks were felt (intensities I-III) on 30 April. Seismicity later returned to normal levels (10-15 events/day) during the second week of May (table 1).

Table 1. Number of earthquakes at Gede, May 1991. Courtesy of VSI.

Dates Deep Volcanic (VT) Shallow Volcanic Tectonic
01-04 May 1991 22 51 47
05-11 May 1991 197 635 9
12-18 May 1991 8 16 20
19-25 May 1991 23 8 9
26-31 May 1991 9 8 13

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


June 1991 (BGVN 16:06) Citation IconCite this Report

Seismicity declines without eruption after April/May swarm

High seismicity associated with the 29 April-1 May swarm activity has continuously declined since late May (figure 1). An average of one volcanic earthquake/day was recorded in June, compared to 43/day in April and 5/day in May. No surface activity was observed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Daily number of earthquakes at Gede, April-May 1991. Courtesy of VSI.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 22 confirmed Holocene eruptive periods.

1957 Mar 13 - 1957 Mar 13 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1957 Mar 13 - 1957 Mar 13 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 4 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Audible Sounds
   - - - -    - - - - Earthquakes (undefined) weak or small
1957 Mar 13    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1956 Apr 28 - 1956 Apr 28 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1956 Apr 28 - 1956 Apr 28 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Incandescence Event was "Glow"
1956 Apr 28    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1955 Jul 21 - 1955 Aug 2 ] Uncertain Eruption

1948 Nov 15 - 1949 Feb 5 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Kawah Leutik (Kawah Ratu)
1948 Nov 15 - 1949 Feb 5 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 7 Events for Episode 1 at Kawah Leutik (Kawah Ratu)

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Blocks
   - - - -    - - - - Mud
   - - - -    - - - - Flames
   - - - -    - - - - Lightning
1948 Nov 15    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1947 Sep 2 - 1948 Jan 28 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Kawah Ratu?, Kawah Lanang
1947 Sep 2 - 1948 Jan 28 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 5 Events for Episode 1 at Kawah Ratu?, Kawah Lanang

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli
1947 Sep 2    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1909 May 2 - 1909 May 2 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 1

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1909 May 2 - 1909 May 2 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion weak or small
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
1909 May 2    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1899 May 1 - 1899 May 14 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1899 May 1 - 1899 May 14 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1899 May 1    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1891 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1891 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1891    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1889 May 8 (in or before) ] Uncertain Eruption

1888 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1888 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1888    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1887 Oct 22 - 1887 Oct 22 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1887 Oct 22 - 1887 Oct 22 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1887 Oct 22    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1886 Jun 10 - 1886 Aug 16 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1886 Jun 10 - 1886 Aug 16 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1886 Jun 10    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1885 Jan - 1885 Feb ] Uncertain Eruption

1870 Aug - 1870 Oct 3 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1870 Aug - 1870 Oct 3 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Audible Sounds
1870 Aug    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1866 Sep 18 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1866 Sep 18 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
1866 Sep 18    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1853 Mar 14 - 1853 Mar 14 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1853 Mar 14 - 1853 Mar 14 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
1853 Mar 14    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1852 May 28 - 1852 May 28 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1852 May 28 - 1852 May 28 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 6 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Blocks
   - - - -    - - - - Earthquakes (undefined) After.
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1852 May 28    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1848 May 8 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1848 May 8 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1848 May 8    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1847 Oct 17 - 1847 Oct 18 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1847 Oct 17 - 1847 Oct 18 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1847 Oct 17    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1845 Jan 23 - 1845 Mar 5 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1845 Jan 23 - 1845 Mar 5 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 5 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Audible Sounds
   - - - -    - - - - Earthquakes (undefined)
1845 Jan 23    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1843 Jul 28 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1843 Jul 28 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
1843 Jul 28    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1840 Nov 12 - 1840 Dec 11 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1840 Nov 12 - 1840 Dec 11 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 8 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Blocks
   - - - -    - - - - Earthquakes (undefined)
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1840 Nov 12    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)
1840 Dec 1    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1839 ] Uncertain Eruption

1832 Aug 29 - 1832 Aug 29 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1832 Aug 29 - 1832 Aug 29 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
1832 Aug 29    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1761 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1761 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1761    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1747 - 1748 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1747 - 1748 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow Uncertain
1747    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)
Deformation History

There is no Deformation History data available for Gede-Pangrango.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Gede-Pangrango.

Photo Gallery

Gede volcano in western Java, seen here from the NE, is adjacent to Gunung Pangrango. Many lava flows are visible on its flanks, including some that may have been erupted in historical time. The steep-walled summit crater has migrated about 1 km to the NNW over time. Two large debris-avalanche deposits on its flanks record previous large-scale collapse events.

Photo by Ruska Hadian, 1990 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
A thick lava flow is exposed by the summit crater of Gede volcano. The 1-km-wide summit crater of Gede has migrated to the NNW over time and contains several smaller craters.

Photo by Sunaman (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
An aerial view from the NE shows the summit crater (right) of Gede volcano. The summit cone was constructed within an older crater, with the western rim forming the peak to the left.

Photo from Taverne, 1926, "Vulkaanstudien op Java," (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
An aerial photo shows the partially forested summit of Gunung Gede volcano from the east. The two dashed lines to the left indicate the locations of Kawah Ratu (top) and Kawah Lanang craters (bottom), and the dashed line to the right indicates the site of Kawah Wadon crater. The flank of Gunung Pangrango, adjacent to Gede, is to the upper right.

Photo published in Taverne, 1926 "Vulkaanstudien op Java," (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The summit crater (right) of Gede is at the broad summit of the volcano. Gunung Gede is one of the most prominent volcanoes in western Java, forming a twin volcano with Pangrango volcano to the NW. Many lava flows are visible on the flanks of the younger Gunung Gede, including some that may have been erupted in historical time. Historical activity, recorded since the 16th century, typically consists of small explosive eruptions of short duration.

Photo by Cahya Patria, 2004 (Centre of Volcanology & Geological Hazard Mitigation, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
GVP Map Holdings

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included. The maps database originated over 30 years ago, but was only recently updated and connected to our main database. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email.


Title: Tanjungkarang
Publisher: Bakosurtanal, Djakarta
Country: Indonesia
Year: 1986
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Tanjungkarang

Title: Serang
Publisher: Director of Military Survey, UK
Country: Indonesia
Year: 1969
Series: 1501 (G)
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Serang

Title: Anger-Lor
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Indonesia
Year: 1965
Series: T725
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:50,000
Map of Anger-Lor

Title: Pulau Sangiang
Publisher: US Army Map Service (Far East)
Country: Indonesia
Year: 1965
Series: T725
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:50,000
Map of Pulau Sangiang

Title: Serang
Publisher: US Army Map Service (Far East)
Country: Indonesia
Year: 1965
Series: T725
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:50,000
Map of Serang

Title: Telukbetung
Publisher: US Army Corps of Engineers
Country: Indonesia
Year: 1959
Series: T503
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Telukbetung

Title: Serang
Publisher: US Army Corps of Engineers
Country: Indonesia
Year: 1958
Series: T503
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Serang

Title: Batavia
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Indonesia
Year: 1946
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Batavia

Title: Batavia
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Indonesia
Year: 1946
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Batavia
Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 2 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections, and may be availble for research (contact the Rock and Ore Collections Manager). Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description Lava Source Collection Date
NMNH 101599 Unidentified -- --
NMNH 101600 Unidentified -- --
External Sites