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Halla

Photo of this volcano
  • South Korea
  • East-Central Asia Volcanic Province
  • Shield | Shield
  • 1007 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Province
  • Landform | Volc Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 33.361°N
  • 126.53°E

  • 1919 m
    6296 ft

  • 306040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports available for Halla.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Halla.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Halla.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 4 confirmed Holocene eruptive periods.

1007 Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1007 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported
 Eruptions of basaltic pyroclastic cones on the flanks took place in 1007 CE (Tomita, 1969; Lee, 1982).

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Cinder Cone

1002 Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1002 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported
 Eruptions of basaltic pyroclastic cones on the flanks took place in 1002 CE (Tomita, 1969; Lee, 1982).

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Cinder Cone

2050 BCE ± 200 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode SW flank (Songaksan tuff ring)
2050 BCE ± 200 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
 The Songkaksan tuff ring, forming a peninsula on the SW tip of the island, was dated at 3,900 ± 100 and 4,090 ± 90 years BP from shells in the overlying sedimentary formation thought to immediately succeed formation of the tuff ring (Sohn et al., 2003). Formation of the tuff ring was followed by the growth of small scoria cones and extrusion of a lava flow.

List of 7 Events for Episode 1 at SW flank (Songaksan tuff ring)

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli
   - - - -    - - - - Blocks
   - - - -    - - - - Scoria

2830 BCE ± 50 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode NE flank (Ilchulbong tuff cone)
2830 BCE ± 50 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)
 A radiocarbon date of 4,780 ± 60 years BP was obtained from shells in the Sinyangri Formation, resulting from erosion of deposits of the Ilchulbong tuff cone and thought to immediately succeed formation of the tuff cone (Sohn et al., 2003). Younger dates of 4,400-1,500 years BP were also obtained from the reworked material. The tuff cone formed in shallow sea water at the NE tip of Cheju Island (Sohn, 1996).

List of 5 Events for Episode 1 at NE flank (Ilchulbong tuff cone)

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli
   - - - -    - - - - Blocks
Deformation History

There is no Deformation History data available for Halla.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Halla.

Photo Gallery

A cluster of scoria cones on the SW rift of Halla shield volcano is part of more than 360 flank cones that were erupted during the third and last stage of activity. Most of the cones were built along the SW-NE-trending rift zone that forms the axis of the island. The basaltic scoria cones are typically 150-200 m in height and are relatively uneroded.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1980 (U.S. Geological Survey).
A waterfall plunging over a trachytic lava flow is a popular tourist destination on Cheju Island. An extensive lava plateau underlies the Halla shield volcano and extends to the coast of the 40 x 80 km island. The volcano dominates the center of the island and has been active from the Pleistocene until historical time.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1980 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The massive Halla shield volcano, seen here from the south, forms much of the 40 x 80 km Cheju Island, which lies 90 km S of the Korean Peninsula. More than 360 late-Pleistocene and Holocene basaltic cones on the flanks of the low-angle volcano were erupted primarily along the long axis of the NE-SW-trending island. Most of these are scoria cones, but about 10 along the coast are Pleistocene tuff rings and tuff cones. Flank eruptions continued into historical time, with the final two taking place during the 11th century.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1980 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Prominent columnar jointing is visible on the steep sides of a trachytic lava dome on the southern coast of Cheju Island. A cluster of trachytic lava domes were erupted near the end of the second stage of activity of Halla, during which the shield volcano was formed in the center of the island.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1980 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Snow-capped Halla shield volcano is seen here from the north, near Cheju city, the largest on Cheju Island. Voluminous lava flows and an underlying lava plateau form the entire 40 x 80 km island. The volcano is capped by the 400-m-wide Backlockdam summit crater and its flanks contain hundreds of cones, some of which form small offshore islands.

Photo by Norm Banks, 1980 (U.S. Geological Survey).
GVP Map Holdings

Maps are not currently available due to technical issues.

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Halla in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

External Sites