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Makushin

Photo of this volcano
  • Country
  • Landform (Volc Type)
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 53.891°N
  • 166.923°W

  • 1800 m
    5906 ft

  • 311310
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 2 September-8 September 2020 Citation IconCite this Report

Seismicity at Makushin returned to background levels after steadily declining for almost three months following a sequence of earthquakes about 10 km E of the summit at a depth of 8 km that had started on 15 June. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Green and Normal, respectively, on 8 September.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: June 2001 (BGVN 26:06) Citation IconCite this Report

Slight increase in small earthquakes during July 2000-June 2001

The last eruption of Makushin occurred on 30 January 1995 and produced an ash cloud that rose to ~2.5 km altitude (BGVN 20:01). The Alaska Volcano Observatory reported that during July 2000 to June 2001 they detected a slight increase in the number of small earthquakes beneath Makushin. The volcano is located 25 km W of the city of Unalaska/Dutch Harbor in the eastern Aleutian Islands. Hypocenters of the earthquakes generally ranged between 0 and 8 km depth. The events had magnitudes of 0-1.5, so they were too small to be felt by humans. The earthquakes were not thought to be immediate precursors to eruptive activity because similar fluctuations in seismic activity have been observed at a number of Aleutian volcanoes and were not followed by eruptions. The level of concern color code remained at Green.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.

Weekly Reports - Index


2020: June | July | September
2001: May


2 September-8 September 2020 Citation IconCite this Report

Seismicity at Makushin returned to background levels after steadily declining for almost three months following a sequence of earthquakes about 10 km E of the summit at a depth of 8 km that had started on 15 June. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Green and Normal, respectively, on 8 September.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


15 July-21 July 2020 Citation IconCite this Report

AVO reported that small earthquakes in an area about 10 km E of the Makushin’s summit and at a depth of about 8 km continued to be detected during 15-21 July. Since the onset of seismicity on 15 June, the earthquakes had generally decreased in both size and rate. No surficial activity was visible in satellite or webcam images; only typical minor steaming from the summit crater lake. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 20-21 July. The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow and Advisory, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


24 June-30 June 2020 Citation IconCite this Report

AVO reported continuing numerous smaller earthquakes in an area about 10 km E of the Makushin’s summit at a depth of about 8 km during 24-30 June; the frequency and magnitude had been declining since 15 June but the rate became variable on 24 June. No surficial activity was visible in satellite or webcam images; only typical minor steaming from summit crater lake. Earthquakes with a M 3 and M 3.8 were recorded at 1653 and 1802 on 28 June, with the larger event strongly felt in Unalaska (14 km E). The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow and Advisory, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


17 June-23 June 2020 Citation IconCite this Report

AVO reported that numerous smaller earthquakes in an area about 12 km SE of Makushin’s summit were recorded after two events greater than M 4 occurred on 15 June. The earthquake activity continued during 16-23 June, though at a declining rate and magnitudes. No surficial activity was visible in satellite or webcam images; only typical minor steaming from summit fumaroles was visible. The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow and Advisory, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


10 June-16 June 2020 Citation IconCite this Report

AVO reported that over a period of several hours on 15 June there were two earthquakes in the vicinity of Makushin that were greater than M 4 and one greater than M 3. The events were located about 11 km SE of the summit at a depth of about 8 km, and felt in Unalaska (14 km E). Numerous smaller earthquakes were recorded, though not felt by Unalaska residents. AVO noted that the earthquakes represented a departure from background levels and were possibly indicative of volcanic unrest; the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level were respectively raised to Yellow and Advisory. The report noted that aftershocks were continuing.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


30 May-5 June 2001 Citation IconCite this Report

Since July 2000 AVO has detected a slight increase in the number of small earthquakes beneath Makushin. The earthquakes generally ranged in depth between 0 and 8 km and were too small to be felt by humans (M0-1.5). The seismic activity was not considered to be an immediate precursor to eruptive activity. Similar fluctuations in earthquake activity have been observed at a number of Aleutian volcanoes that did not result in an eruption. The Concern Color Code remained at Green.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


Bulletin Reports - Index

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

07/1980 (SEAN 05:07) Recently-ejected tephra; vapor emission

04/1986 (SEAN 11:04) Increased steaming from six summit area vents

06/1986 (SEAN 11:06) Increased steam plume

02/1987 (SEAN 12:02) Small ash eruption; new steam vents

04/1987 (SEAN 12:04) Correction: 2 March ash plume was from Akutan

01/1994 (BGVN 19:01) Storm causes false eruption reports; sulfur smell 25 km E

01/1995 (BGVN 20:01) Small steam-and-ash plume reported by pilots

06/2001 (BGVN 26:06) Slight increase in small earthquakes during July 2000-June 2001




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


July 1980 (SEAN 05:07) Citation IconCite this Report

Recently-ejected tephra; vapor emission

On 8 July, J. Hauptmann, G. Gunther, and R. [Steuer] visited a seismic station on the E flank and overflew the summit. More than ten roughly circular vents emitted vapor from the summit area, a flat region about 100 m across. The largest vent was about 30 m in diameter, and others were around 10 m across. An H2S odor was detected, but no ash or incandescent material was observed.

About 60 m below the summit on the S flank, an explosion vent had recently ejected tephra ranging in size from ash to blocks, deposited in streaks aligned roughly toward the SE. Some impact craters were present in the deposit area, which extended 30-60 m from the vent.

Information Contacts: J. Hauptmann, G. Gunther, R. Steuer, and S. McNutt, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO).


April 1986 (SEAN 11:04) Citation IconCite this Report

Increased steaming from six summit area vents

On 20 December, pilot T. Madsen (Aleutian Air) noticed anomalous amounts of steam rising from six large and closely spaced steam vents just E of the summit. The largest plume was 500-600 m high. No ash was observed in the white plumes. Air temperature at 2,400 m was -6.7°C, warm for that altitude. Steaming remained anomalously vigorous for the next two days before returning to a more normal level. Based on John Reeder's observations . . . since 1979, the summit steam activity is continuous and normally reaches heights of 100 m or slightly less.

Information Contacts: J. Reeder, Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS).


June 1986 (SEAN 11:06) Citation IconCite this Report

Increased steam plume

On 28 April at 0700, James Dickson observed a 450 m vertical steam plume over Makushin that trailed SE for at least 30 km. He detected no ash in the plume.

Information Contacts: J. Reeder, ADGGS.


February 1987 (SEAN 12:02) Citation IconCite this Report

Small ash eruption; new steam vents

On 2 March between 1700 and 1940, a dark eruption plume rose about 900 m above the volcano and drifted SW [this was actually an eruption from Akutan; see 12:04]. After the eruption a 60-m-high steam plume remained.

An airplane pilot (T. Madsen) noted two fairly large steam vents, which he had not noticed on previous flights, on 29 February and 1 and 2 March.

Information Contacts: J. Reeder, ADGGS.


April 1987 (SEAN 12:04) Citation IconCite this Report

Correction: 2 March ash plume was from Akutan

The 2 March eruption plume [previously reported] was actually a plume from Akutan. Activity on 2 March was limited to a steam plume containing ash that extended at least 30 km E from the summit. Pilot H. Wilson (Peninsula Airways) observed several steam plumes rising at least 250 m above the summit and drifting at least 3 km WNW. He noted particulate matter, possibly ash, over snow in the summit region.

Information Contacts: J. Reeder, ADGGS; T. Miller, USGS Anchorage; W. Gould, NOAA/NESDIS.


January 1994 (BGVN 19:01) Citation IconCite this Report

Storm causes false eruption reports; sulfur smell 25 km E

"Reports of possible eruptive activity . . . 22-23 January reflected a combination of intense lightning near the volcano and a strong sulfur odor detected in Dutch Harbor, 25 km E. The lightning was apparently associated with the passing of a strong storm front, and winds were blowing directly toward Dutch Harbor.

Information Contacts: AVO.


January 1995 (BGVN 20:01) Citation IconCite this Report

Small steam-and-ash plume reported by pilots

A small steam-and-ash cloud observed by Coast Guard C-130 pilots at 1246 on 30 January reportedly rose to ~2,400 m altitude and was carried NE from the volcano. Several pilots reported a diminishing light brown ash plume during the next hour, and all activity apparently subsided shortly thereafter. A satellite image recorded at 1345 showed no sign of eruptive activity, but the NWS issued a SIGMET that ran until 1700.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory.


June 2001 (BGVN 26:06) Citation IconCite this Report

Slight increase in small earthquakes during July 2000-June 2001

The last eruption of Makushin occurred on 30 January 1995 and produced an ash cloud that rose to ~2.5 km altitude (BGVN 20:01). The Alaska Volcano Observatory reported that during July 2000 to June 2001 they detected a slight increase in the number of small earthquakes beneath Makushin. The volcano is located 25 km W of the city of Unalaska/Dutch Harbor in the eastern Aleutian Islands. Hypocenters of the earthquakes generally ranged between 0 and 8 km depth. The events had magnitudes of 0-1.5, so they were too small to be felt by humans. The earthquakes were not thought to be immediate precursors to eruptive activity because similar fluctuations in seismic activity have been observed at a number of Aleutian volcanoes and were not followed by eruptions. The level of concern color code remained at Green.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 19 confirmed Holocene eruptive periods.

1995 Jan 30 - 1995 Jan 30 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 1

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1995 Jan 30 - 1995 Jan 30 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 4 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Ash weak or small
1995 Jan 30    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1993 Aug 16 ± 15 days - 1994 Jan 19 (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 1

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1993 Aug 16 ± 15 days - 1994 Jan 19 (?) Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
1993 Aug    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1987 Mar 2 - 1987 Mar 2 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 1

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1987 Mar 2 - 1987 Mar 2 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity Uncertain
   - - - -    - - - - Ash weak or small
1987 Mar 2    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1986 Apr 28 ] Discredited Eruption

1980 May 1 ± 75 days Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 1

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode SE side of summit
1980 May 1 ± 75 days - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 4 Events for Episode 1 at SE side of summit

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity weak or small
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Blocks
1980 May 1 ± 75 days    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1952 Jul 2 ± 182 days ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1952 Jul 2 ± 182 days - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Volcanic "smoke"

1951 Dec 20 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 1

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1951 Dec 20 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
1951 Dec 20    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1938 Oct Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1938 Oct - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion weak or small
1938 Oct    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1926 Dec 30 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1926 Dec 30 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion weak or small
   - - - -    - - - - Earthquakes (undefined) Before.
1926 Dec 30    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1912 ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1912 - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Volcanic "smoke"

1907 Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1907 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

1883 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1883 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion weak or small
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
1883    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1867 ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1867 - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Volcanic "smoke"

1865 Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1865 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

[ 1844 ± 1 years ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1844 ± 1 years - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Volcanic "smoke"

[ 1827 - 1838 ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1827 - 1838 Evidence from Unknown

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Volcanic "smoke"
1827    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1826 Jun Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1826 Jun - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 4 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Volcanic "smoke"
   - - - -    - - - - Earthquakes (undefined)
1826 Jun    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1818 ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1818 - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Volcanic "smoke"

1802 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1802 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1802    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1792 Feb 14 ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1792 Feb 14 - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Volcanic "smoke"

[ 1790 Jun 7 ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1790 Jun 7 - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Volcanic "smoke"

1768 - 1769 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1768 - 1769 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
1768    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)
1769    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1150 ± 500 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1150 ± 500 years - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0550 BCE ± 900 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0550 BCE ± 900 years - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

1750 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1750 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Lahar or Mudflow

3650 BCE ± 1850 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
3650 BCE ± 1850 years - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
3650 BCE ± 1000 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

6100 BCE ± 50 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 5

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
6100 BCE ± 50 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)

List of 5 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Caldera Explosion
6100 BCE ± 50 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

6650 BCE ± 200 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
6650 BCE ± 200 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)

List of 5 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Directed Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Pyroclastic flow
   - - - -    - - - - Avalanche
   - - - -    - - - - Edifice Destroyed Collapse/avalanche
Deformation History

There is data available for 3 deformation periods. Expand each entry for additional details.


Deformation during 2004 - 2009 [Subsidence; Observed by InSAR]

Start Date: 2004 Stop Date: 2009 Direction: Subsidence Method: InSAR
Magnitude: Unknown Spatial Extent: Unknown Latitude: Unknown Longitude: Unknown
Figure (see Caption)

Average InSAR images from two descending (a, b) and two ascending (c, d) Envisat tracks produced by stacking all coherent interferograms from each individual track. Each interferometric fringe (full color cycle) represents 10 mm/year of range change between the ground and the satellite. Areas lacking interferometric coherence are uncolored

From: Lu and Dzurisin 2014.


Reference List: Lu and Dzurisin 2014.

Full References:

Lu Z, Dzurisin D, 2014. InSAR imaging of Aleutian volcanoes: monitoring a volcanic arc from space. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00348-6

Deformation during 1995 Sep - 2000 Aug 07 [Subsidence; Observed by InSAR]

Start Date: 1995 Sep Stop Date: 2000 Aug 07 Direction: Subsidence Method: InSAR
Magnitude: Unknown Spatial Extent: Unknown Latitude: Unknown Longitude: Unknown

Remarks: minor subsidence on upper flanks of volcano

Figure (see Caption)

Examples of interferograms of Makushin produced from ERS-1/ERS-2 images acquired during 1993?2000 and spanning the following time intervals (yyyymmdd): e 19950901?19960921 f 19960729?19990927 g 19961007?19971027, and h 19980907?20000807. Each interferometric fringe (full color cycle) represents 2.83 cm of range change between the ground and the satellite. Surface uplift of about 7 cm (2+ fringes) occurred between October 1993 and September 1995

From: Lu and Dzurisin 2014.


Reference List: Lu and Dzurisin 2014.

Full References:

Lu Z, Dzurisin D, 2014. InSAR imaging of Aleutian volcanoes: monitoring a volcanic arc from space. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00348-6

Deformation during 1993 Oct - 1995 Sep [Uplift; Observed by InSAR]

Start Date: 1993 Oct Stop Date: 1995 Sep Direction: Uplift Method: InSAR
Magnitude: 7.000 cm Spatial Extent: Unknown Latitude: Unknown Longitude: Unknown

Remarks: centered 5 km east of summi

Figure (see Caption)

Examples of interferograms of Makushin produced from ERS-1/ERS-2 images acquired during 1993?2000 and spanning the following time intervals (yyyymmdd): a 19930820?19961007 b 19930908?19970906 c 19930804?19960921 d 19931013?19951006. Each interferometric fringe (full color cycle) represents 2.83 cm of range change between the ground and the satellite. Surface uplift of about 7 cm (2+ fringes) occurred between October 1993 and September 1995

From: Lu and Dzurisin 2014.


Reference List: Lu and Dzurisin 2014.

Full References:

Lu Z, Dzurisin D, 2014. InSAR imaging of Aleutian volcanoes: monitoring a volcanic arc from space. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00348-6

Emission History

There is data available for 1 emission periods. Expand each entry for additional details.


Emissions during 1980 May 01 - 1980 May 01 [10 kt SO2 at 12 km altitude]

Start Date: 1980 May 01 Stop Date: 1980 May 01 Method: Satellite (Nimbus-7 TOMS)
SO2 Altitude Min: 12 km SO2 Altitude Max: 12 km Total SO2 Mass: 10 kt

Data Details

Date Start Date End Assumed SO2 Altitude SO2 Algorithm SO2 Mass
19800501 12.0 10.000
GVP Map Holdings

Maps are not currently available due to technical issues.

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Makushin in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

External Sites